Archive for the ‘Science’ Category

To understand the healing power behind 432Hz, you must first learn about another frequency, 8Hz. It is said that 8Hz is the fundamental “beat” of the planet. The heartbeat of the Earth is better known as Schumann resonance and is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann, who documented it mathematically in 1952.

Schumann resonance is a global electromagnetic resonance, which has its origin in electrical discharges of lightning within the cavity existing between the Earth’s surface and the ionosphere. This cavity resonates with electromagnetic waves in the extremely low frequencies of approximately 7.86Hz – 8Hz.

The “ordinary” thought waves created by the human brain range from 14Hz to 40Hz. This range only includes certain types of dendrites belonging to brain cells, predominantly within the left (the more rational) hemisphere of the brain, which is the center of activity.

If the two hemispheres of our brain are synchronized with each other at 8Hz, they work more harmoniously and with a maximum flow of information. In other words, the frequency of 8Hz seems to be the key to the full and sovereign activation potential of our brain.

8Hz is also the frequency of the double helix in DNA replication. Melatonin and Pinoline work on the DNA, inducing an 8Hz signal to enable metosis and DNA replication. A form of body temperature superconductivity is evident in this process.

On the musical scale where A has a frequency of 440Hz, the note C is at about 261.656 Hz. On the other hand, if we take 8Hz as our starting point and work upwards by five octaves (i.e. by the seven notes in the scale five times), we reach a frequency of 256Hz in whose scale the note A has a frequency of 432Hz.

According to the harmonic principle by which any produced sound automatically resonates all the other multiples of that frequency, when we play C at 256 Hz, the C of all other octaves also begins to vibrate in “sympathy” and so, naturally, the frequency of 8Hz is also sounded. This is why (together with many other mathematical reasons) the musical pitch tuned to 432 oscillations per second is known as the “scientific tuning.”

This tuning was unanimously approved at the Congress of Italian musicians in 1881 and recommended by the physicists Joseph Sauveur and Felix Savart as well as by the Italian scientist Bartolomeo Grassi Landi.

In contrast, the frequency chosen in London in 1953 as the worldwide reference frequency and which all music today has been tuned to, has come to be defined as ‘disharmonic’ because it has no scientific relationship to the physical laws that govern our universe

According to the above information, playing and listening to music that has been tuned to 432Hz would make your body, and the organic world which surrounds it, resonate in a natural way. This would fill you with a sense of peace and well-being, regardless of the kind of song chosen to play or listen to.

Opening your ears for music that has been tuned to the “scientific” 432Hz frequency would benefit the entire planet and everyone who lives on it, while listening to music tuned to the “disharmonic” 440Hz frequency does harm by causing stress, negative behaviors and unstable emotions.

Listening to 432Hz music resonates inside your body, releases emotional blockages, and expands consciousness. 432Hz music allows you to tune into the knowledge of the universe around us in a more intuitive way.

Karol Jankowiak is an artist, technologist, independent sound researcher, and educated philosopher. He is the founder of Attuned Vibrations, where he promotes the healing 432 Hz and other alternative tuning methods. Born with sensitive ears and natural curiosity, he left corporate life to help and assist others in rediscovering their true potential as vibrational beings.  Visit Karol’s website, Attuned Vibrations, or follow him on Facebook.
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  Researchers found evidence of a “lunar influence” in a study of 33 volunteers sleeping in tightly controlled laboratory conditions. When the Moon was round, the volunteers took longer to nod off and had poorer quality sleep, despite being shut in a darkened room, Current Biology reports. They also had a dip in levels of a hormone called melatonin that is linked to natural-body clock cycles. When it is dark, the body makes more melatonin. And it produces less when it is light. Being exposed to bright lights in the evening or too little light during the day can disrupt the body’s normal melatonin cycles. But the work in Current Biology, by Prof Christian Cajochen and colleagues from Basel University in Switzerland, suggests the Moon’s effects may be unrelated to its brightness. The volunteers were unaware of the purpose of the study and could not see the Moon from their beds in the researchers’ sleep lab. They each spent two separate nights at the lab under close observation. Findings revealed that around the full Moon, brain activity related to deep sleep dropped by nearly a third. Melatonin levels also dipped. The volunteers also took five minutes longer to fall asleep and slept for 20 minutes less when there was a full Moon. Prof Cajochen said: “The lunar cycle seems to influence human sleep, even when one does not ‘see’ the Moon and is not aware of the actual moon phase.” Some people may be exquisitely sensitive to the Moon, say the researchers. Their study did not originally set out to investigate a lunar effect. The researchers had the idea of doing the lunar analysis years later, while chatting over a few drinks. They went back to their old data and factored in whether or not there had been a full Moon on the nights the volunteers had slept in their lab. UK sleep expert Dr Neil Stanley said, nonetheless, the small study appeared to have significant findings. “There is such a strong cultural story around the full Moon that it would not be surprising if it has an effect. It’s one of these folk things that you would suspect has a germ of truth. It’s up to science now to find out what’s the cause of why we might sleep differently when there’s a full Moon.” –BBC

Why NASA Hesitates on UFO Research

Posted: July 22, 2013 by phaedrap1 in News, Science
Tags: ,


NASA and the scientific community as a whole are aware of the implications of openly communicating their UFO studies.

According to Dr. Davis, the seed reason for this lies in the fact that it is because the military operations govern this coveted research. His opinion is that UFO study falls within the communication category, something the military has under its wing.

For years many scientists have avoided discussing their own hypothesis and research surrounding this topic of investigation. However, Dr. Davis is among many scientists who illustrate that this concept is shifting as more scientists are openly discussing UFO investigation.

“UFOs are real phenomena. They are artificial objects under intelligent control. They’re definitely the craft of a supremely advanced technology,” says physicist Eric Davis.

Eric Davis is a research physicist at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Austin. His accolades in the science realm include his research of light-speed travel. At present, he is studying propulsion physics; something he hopes may enable humans to travel with ease and speed through space.

Sharing his opinion about skeptics’ harsh reviews, he is aware that it is a no-go area for most.

“They’re wrong, naive, stubborn, narrow-minded, afraid and fearful. It’s a dirty word and a forbidden topic. Science is about open-minded inquiry. You shouldn’t be laughing off people. You should show more deference and respect to them … Scientists need to get back to using the scientific method to study things that are unknown and unusual, and the UFO subject is one of them.”

Davis is presenting “Faster-Than-Light Space Warps & Interstellar Flight: What’s It All About?” this Sunday at the 2013 Mufon Symposium in Las Vegas. Dr. Davis, along with many other scientists including Dr. Steven Greer, are presenting research, findings and views on various UFO topics this weekend.

So, what is the reason for the hush about scientific research into UFOs?

Dr. Evans claims he knows many colleagues who quietly investigate this area.

“There are scientists who are aware of evidence and observational data that is not refutable. It is absolutely corroborated, using forensic techniques and methodology. But they won’t come out and publicize that because they fear it. Not the subject — they fear the backlash from their professional colleagues. The impact on their career might be detrimental and they’d get bad publicity.

“It’s not an acceptable, funded line of research. The National Science Foundation does not accept UFOs as a subject for scientific study.”

It may be unknown to many, but there are multiple scientists who have been studying and investigating UFO activity, despite the respite from the scientific community.

Perhaps the real reason NASA and other big organizations have made the area of UFO investigation unpalatable is due to the fact the territory of this knowledge does not fall under the science umbrella.

“It’s the domain of military intelligence,” he proposes. “The fact that [unknown] craft are flying around Earth is not a subject for science – it’s a subject for intelligence-gathering, collection and analysis. That’s because UFOs are not a natural phenomenon, and that’s what science studies.”

In addition to being the Senior Research Physicist at the Institute for Advanced Studies at Austin, Eric Davis is the Chief Scientist of Warp Drive Metrics. His past experience includes the NASA institute for Advanced Concepts and a technical contributor and consultant to the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program.

Jessica Rosslee

Guardian Express


Michael Boatwright 

American Michael Boatwright has left doctors baffled after waking up speaking only SWEDISH.

The 61-year-old had been found unconscious in a California motel with no memory of his past.

When he opened his eyes in a medical centre he called himself Johan Ek and spoke just Swedish.

Despite extensive enquiries, police were unable to contact any relatives or find anything out about Mr Boatwright, according to the Desert Sun newspaper.

They believe he may have been in the area for a tennis tournament, though, as he had several rackets on him when he was found.

Mr Boatwrighht, who is said to be in good health, told the paper: “Sometimes it makes me really sad and sometimes it just makes me furious about the whole situation and the fact that I don’t know anybody, I don’t recognise anybody.”

Detecting DNA in Space

Posted: July 10, 2013 by phaedrap1 in Science
Tags: ,


If there is life on Mars, it’s not too farfetched to believe that such Martian species may share genetic roots with life on Earth. 

Detecting DNA in space
Mars [Credit: NASA]

More than 3.5 billion years ago, a blitz of meteors ricocheted around the solar system, passing material between the two fledgling planets. This galactic game of pingpong may have left bits of Earth on Mars, and vice versa, creating a shared genetic ancestry between the two planets.

Such a theory holds great appeal for Christopher Carr, a research scientist in MIT’s Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. Working with Gary Ruvkun at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Maria Zuber, the E.A. Griswold Professor of Geophysics and MIT’s vice president for research, Carr is building a DNA sequencer that he hopes will one day be sent to Mars, where it can analyze soil and ice samples for traces of DNA and other genetic material.

Now in a step toward that goal, Carr and colleagues at MIT, Harvard University and MGH have exposed the heart of their tool — a DNA-sequencing microchip — to radiation doses similar to those that might be expected during a robotic expedition to Mars. After exposure to such radiation — including protons and heavy ions of oxygen and iron — the microchip analyzed a test strain of E. coli, successfully identifying its genetic sequence.

Carr says the group’s results show the microchip can survive up to two years in space — long enough to reach Mars and gather data there for a year and a half.

“Over time on Mars, a chip’s performance could degrade, reducing our ability to get sequence data. The chip might have a higher error rate, or could fail to function at all,” Carr says. “We did not see any of these issues [in our tests]. … Once this chip has been through two years of a Mars mission, it still will be able to sequence.”

The researchers reported their results in a paper published in the journal Astrobiology.

Simulating a solar storm

Any life on Mars, past or present, would have to be extremely resilient: The planet’s atmosphere, made mostly of carbon dioxide, is 100 times thinner than Earth’s, providing very little warmth. Temperatures can plummet to minus 195 degrees Fahrenheit.

On the other hand, the deep subsurface of Mars is not much different from that of Earth, which is known to harbor microbes. Results from the Curiosity rover, currently exploring Mars, suggest that beneath the planet’s surface lies a dry and cold — but otherwise likely benign — environment, with all the major elements required for life.

To detect such subterranean life, a DNA-sequencing instrument on the surface of Mars would have to withstand temperature swings and steady exposure to space radiation. Such exposure could cause chips to report false positives, for instance, or to record extra bases in DNA sequences.

Carr and his colleagues tested the effects of Mars-like radiation on a commercially available sequencing chip. The tested chip contains 1.3 million microwells, each of which can hold a single bead containing an amplified fragment of DNA that can be used to generate a DNA sequence.

To test the chip’s resilience to radiation, the team traveled to NASA’s Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Once there, the researchers, working with a total of 40 microchips, first performed electrical testing on 20 chips — a process by which a chip’s gain, voltage and wells are calibrated to verify that the parts are working properly.

Following electrical testing, Carr exposed the chips to various levels of radiation, using a linear accelerator and an electron-beam ion source. The highest radiation dose sustained by the chips was more than they would experience during a two-year mission to Mars.

After the chips were irradiated, the team once again tested the electrical performance of each, and found very little change in the chips’ functioning.

Life on Mars and beyond

In a second round of testing, Carr exposed the remaining 20 microchips to the same radiation levels as the first batch, then took the chips back to his lab and loaded each with DNA fragments from E. coli. Despite their exposure to radiation, the chips were able to analyze DNA and correctly identified the bacterial sequences.

“These chips are great candidates to do sequencing on Mars without any modifications that we know of right now,” Carr says. “We essentially see no impact from radiation. That was a critical thing for us to show.”

Chris McKay, a planetary scientist with the Space Science Division of NASA’s Ames Research Center, says a radiation-resilient DNA-sequencing chip, such as the one used in this experiment, is a promising candidate for future life-detecting missions to Mars and other planets. 

The paper by Carr and colleagues “reports on an important step forward on the development of DNA sequencers for planetary missions,” says McKay, who did not contribute to the research. “In addition to being part of the search for life on other worlds, the DNA searcher would be relevant to assessing sites for human exploration.”

In previous studies, Carr and his colleagues have found that the reagents used in DNA sequencing can also withstand similar radiation levels. Taken together, Carr says, the results suggest genetic sequencing may be a viable process in space.

Beyond Mars, Carr says, DNA sequencing may be of interest in places such as Jupiter’s moon Europa, where liquid oceans may harbor signs of life. More promising, Carr says, are places like Enceladus, a moon of Saturn that is thought to be in a potential habitable zone, and that has much less intense radiation.

“I do think we’ll see DNA sequencing in space at some point,” Carr says. “Hopefully we’ll get a chance to be a part of that.”

Author: Jennifer Chu | Source: Massachusetts Institute of Technology [July 09,

India has officially recognized dolphins as non-human persons, whose rights to life and liberty must be respected. Dolphin parks that were being built across the country will instead be shut down.

India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests has advised state governments to ban dolphinariums and other commercial entertainment that involves the capture and confinement of cetacean species such as orcas and bottlenose dolphins. In a statement, the government said research had clearly established cetaceans are highly intelligent and sensitive, and that dolphins “should be seen as ‘non-human persons’ and as such should have their own specific rights.”

The move comes after weeks of protest against a dolphin park in the state of Kerala and several other marine mammal entertainment facilities which were to be built this year. Animal welfare advocates welcomed the decision.

“This opens up a whole new discourse of ethics in the animal protection movement in India,” said Puja Mitra from the Federation of Indian Animal Protection Organizations (FIAPO). Mitra is a leading voice in the Indian movement to end dolphin captivity.

Kasatka the killer whale performs during SeaWorld's Shamu show, Thursday, Nov. 30, 2006, in San Diego. Trainer Ken Peters remains hospitalized after suffering a broken foot when Kasatka dragged him underwater twice during a show on Wednesday. (ddp images/AP Photo/Chris Park) Indian officials say it is morally unacceptable to exploit cetaceans in commercial entertainment

“The scientific evidence we provided during the campaign talked about cetacean intelligence and introduced the concept of non-human persons,” she said in an interview with DW.

Indiais the fourth country in the world to ban the capture and import of cetaceans for the purpose of commercial entertainment – along with Costa Rica, Hungary, and Chile.

Dolphins are persons, not performers

The movement to recognize whale and dolphins as individuals with self-awareness and a set of rights gained momentum three years ago in Helsinki, Finland when scientists and ethicists drafted a Declaration of Rights for Cetaceans. “We affirm that all cetaceans as persons have the right to life, liberty and well-being,” they wrote.

epa02917339 An undated handout picture provided by Monash University on 15 September 2011 of a new species of dolphins in Victoria's Port Phillip Bay, Australia. The new species, Tursiops Australis, which can also be found at Gippsland Lake, have a small population of 150 and were originally thought to be one of the two existing bottlenose dolphin species. EPA/MONASH UNIVERSITY / HO AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND OUT HANDOUT EDITORIAL USE ONLY +++(c) dpa - Bildfunk+++ Dolphins are naturally playful and curious, which has made them popular with aqurium visitors

The signatories included leading marine scientist Lori Marino who produced evidence that cetaceans have large, complex brains especially in areas involved in communication and cognition. Her work has shown that dolphins have a level of self-awareness similar to that of human beings. Dolphins can recognize their own reflection, use tools and understand abstract concepts. They develop unique signature whistles allowing friends and family members to recognize them, similar to the way human beings use names.

“They share intimate, close bonds with their family groups. They have their own culture, their own hunting practices – even variations in the way they communicate,” said FIAPO’s Puja Mitra.

But it is precisely this ability to learn tricks and charm audiences that have made whales and dolphins a favorite in aquatic entertainment programs around the world.

Seaworld slaughter

Disposable personal income has increased in India and there is a growing market for entertainment. Dolphin park proposals were being considered in Delhi, Kochi and Mumbai.

Lahore, PAKISTAN: Pakistani cinema goers queue for tickets for the Indian classic movie Mughal-e-Azam outside the Gulistan Cinema in Lahore, 23 April 2006. The forbidden love of Pakistanis for Indian movies was allowed into the open on 23 April with the public screening of a 1960 classic beloved on both sides of the border. AFP PHOTO/Arif ALI (Photo credit should read Arif Ali/AFP/Getty Images) India’s growing middle class is hungry for entertainment

“There’s nothing like having a few animals on display, particularly ones that are so sensitive and intelligent as these dolphins,” said Belinda Wright from the Wildlife Protection Society of India in an interview with DW. “It’s a good money making proposition.”

But audiences are usually oblivious to the documented suffering of these marine performers.

“The majority of dolphins and whales in captivity have been sourced through wild captures in Japan, in Taiji, in the Caribbean, in the Solomon Islands and parts of Russia. These captures are very violent,” Mitra explained.

“They drive groups of dolphins into shallow bay areas where young females whose bodies are unmarked and are thought to be suitable for display are removed. The rest are often slaughtered.”

Mitra argued that the experience of captivity is tantamount to torture. She explained that orcas and other dolphins navigate by using sonar signals, but in tanks, the reverberations bounce off the walls, causing them “immense distress”. She described dolphins banging their heads on the walls and orcas wearing away their teeth as they pull at bars and bite walls.

Tanks terminated

In response to the new ban, the Greater Cochin Development Authority (CGDA) told DW that it has withdrawn licenses for a dolphin park in the city of Kochi, where there have been massive animal rights demonstrations in recent months.

epa03452781 A beluga whale passes by young visitors in the Cold Water Quest exhibit at the Georgia Aquarium in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 30 October 2012. The Georgia Aquarium, which opened in 2005, features more than 10 million gallons of water and over 60 different exhibits. EPA/ERIK S. LESSER<br />
Will the ban on captive dolphin exploitation lead to more protection for other highly intelligent non-humans?

“It is illegal now,” said N. Venugopal, who heads the CGDA. “It is over. We will not allow it anymore.”

He said the government hadn’t lost money on the development but declined to comment on how much the dolphin park was worth.

Boost for Ganges River dolphin

It’s possible that India’s new ban on cetacean captivity will lead to renewed interest in protecting the country’s own Ganges River dolphin.

“I hope this will put some energy into India’s Action Plan for the Gangetic Dolphin, which is supposed to run until 2020,” said Belinda Wright from the Wildlife Protection Society of India. “But there’s been very little action.

She said the ban was a good first stop, but warned against excessive optimism. “I’m very proud that India has done this,” she said. “I’m not trying to be cynical but I have been a conservationist in India for four decades. One gets thrilled with the wording, but I don’t think it’s going to turn to the tables.”

“But dolphins for now are safe from dolphinariums, and that’s a good thing,” she added.



Two new milk advertisements by the dairy industry have been making their rounds on American television. Both ads suggest that drinking a glass of milk before bed will prevent awakenings in sleep and give you better dreams. Unfortunately, the evidence for a good night’s sleep thanks to a glass of milk is a little thin.

Or should I say skim?

Here’s one of the ads:

How could milk give you longer dreams?

To do so, the properties of milk would have to have an effect on the structure of sleep, by increasing the length of REM sleep (dreaming sleep), for example, or delaying a shift into wakefulness. There’s no clinical study that’s ever looked at this correlation directly.

However, several studies have looked into the effects of a key ingredient found in milk: melatonin, an amino acid that regulates the sleep-wake cycle. A 2000 study published in the journal Sleep and Hypnosis found that taking 6mg of melatonin at night for two weeks significantly increased bizarre dreams for college students.

The second milk ad really seems to key into the bizarreness of dreams. Check it out.

By the way, in dream research lingo, bizarreness is often another way of saying creepy and nightmarish. Bizarre dreams are not necessarily populated by milk goddesses.

There’s also some clinical studies on larger doses of melatonin (over 5mg), which have been linked with increasing REM sleep in general, at least in some people, such as patients who are suffering from REM sleep deprivation.

On a purely anecdotal level, I know of many dreamers who have reported vivid, nightmarish and lucid dreams after taking very high doses of supplemental melatonin (over 10mg. It’s not safe, don’t do this).

So, at first blush, it seems there may be something to the dreamy effect of milk.

Tryptophan and Melatonin


Click the picture for more about the tryptophan effect

Besides melatonin, milk contains trace amounts of tryptophan, which is another amino acid that’s found in a lot of foods, including most meats as well as scores of seeds and nuts.

Tryptophan is synthesized in the brain as serotonin, and finally melatonin.

Because of this relationship, tryptophan can also have a drowsiness effect when a lot is consumed at the right time.

But here’s the rub:

Compared to other foods, milk doesn’t really contain much tryptophan. Half a glass of milk (4 oz) contains about .08grams of tryptophan, compared with the same or equivalent amount of soybeans (.59 gram), spirulina (.9 gram) and dried white egg (1gram).

you’d need to drink a gallon of milk for the tryptophan effect.

According to sleep doctor Michael Breus, you’d need to drink a gallon of milk for the tryptophan effect. So you’ll be interrupting your dreams by going to the bathroom every 20 minutes.

Milk doesn’t have much melatonin either; certainly much less than those 5mg mega-doses you can get from over-the-counter supplements.

Creepily enough, there is a new kind of milk currently being tested called night milk, which is taken from cows at night that are fed a lot of tryptophan in their diets. It’s patented and supposedly contains over 25 times the melatonin of ordinary milk.  It’s pretty controversial. Still, even “sleepytime milk” has a hundredth of a typical dose you’d get from a typical melatonin supplement.

Drinking Milk Alone Won’t Do the Trick


Drinking milk alone is sad.

In any case, the amount of sleep-inducing amino acids that you consume before bed is not the only issue here.

To affect sleep, tryptophan needs to be absorbed more readily than other amino acids, and the best way to do this is to eat foods with complex carbohydrates, which cause an insulin spike to clear out the sugars and those competing amino acids.

Guess what?

Milk by itself doesn’t have many complex carbs; it’s mostly simple sugars. So, to get the (ridiculously small) tryptophan effect from milk, you’d need to take it with a bowl of cereal or with some toast.

This is a good idea anyways, as eating a small, healthy snack an hour before bed can help you lose weight.

Milk’s secret weapon?

There’s one more potential for milk to help with falling asleep.

Milk contains some casein proteins, which may have a slight relaxation effect. Four of the six proteins in milk are casein proteins; the others are whey.

Athletes and bodybuilders swear by protein shakes high in casein to help with slowing muscle atrophy during sleep, although I don’t know if this use has been clinically demonstrated.

casein proteins may lower cortisol levels and blood pressure

According to some recent European research, casein proteins may lower cortisol levels and blood pressure, both of which are helpful for drifting off to sleep more quickly.

Still, there’s a lot of other dairy products that have more caseins proteins than milk –most hard cheeses and cottage cheese for example.

Got Curds?

Speaking of curds, there’s actually some evidence for the effect of fermented milk on sleep health. In fermented milk, the bacteria Lactobacillus helveticus may help with falling asleep and also lower blood pressure.

Lactobacillus helveticus is the bacteria that is responsible for making cheese, and as a probiotic it’s also been linked to preventing infections and improving immune response. So that’s another reason to have cheese rather than milk before bed (because those bacteria are still in the cheese–it’s a live food).

Go for cheddar, mozzarella or Swiss cheese. Even better, make some cheese toast, and get your complex carbs too.

Seriously though, did I mention my new book yet?

book1 3d renderDrinking milk is probably not going to transform your dream life. But a glass of milk may be a healthy part of a bedtime snack that could make it easier to fall asleep. Make it a warm glass of milk if you want to add that special “just like Grandma did” effect.

Do you really want to remember more dreams and get better sleep?

Sign up for notifications about my new book: Dream Like a Boss (Book one): Sleep better, dream more and wake up to what matters most. It’s dropping next month, so stay in touch!

By Ryan Hurd

Secret Streets Of Britain’s Atlantis Revealed

Posted: May 11, 2013 by phaedrap1 in News, Science
Tags: – There are several underwater ruins in various places around the world and all of them could be part of Atlantis.

The most detailed analysis ever of the archaeological remains of the lost medieval town of Dunwich, dubbed ‘Britain’s Atlantis’ has been carried out by a University of Southampton professor David Sear of Geography and Environment in cooperation with the University’s GeoData Institute; the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton; Wessex Archaeology; and local divers from North Sea Recovery and Learn Scuba.

The most accurate map to date of the town’s streets, boundaries and major buildings, and revealed new ruins on the seabed, was created by using advanced underwater imaging techniques.

Click on image to enlarge3D visualisation showing the remains of St Katherine’s Church in the now submerged town of Dunwich. Credit: University of Southampton

“Visibility under the water at Dunwich is very poor due to the muddy water. This has limited the exploration of the site,

“We have now dived on the site using high resolution DIDSON ™ acoustic imaging to examine the ruins on the seabed – a first use of this technology for non-wreck marine archaeology.


Bedrock structures spotted under the sea: The project to survey the underwater ruins of Dunwich, the world’s largest medieval underwater town site, began in 2008
“DIDSON technology is rather like shining a torch onto the seabed, only using sound instead of light. The data produced helps us to not only see the ruins, but also understand more about how they interact with the tidal currents and sea bed.”


“The loss of most of the medieval town of Dunwich over the last few hundred years – one of the most important English ports in the Middle Ages – is part of a long process that is likely to result in more losses in the future.

Everyone was surprised, though, by how much of the eroded town still survives under the sea and is identifiable,” Peter Murphy, English Heritage’s coastal survey expert who is currently completing a national assessment of coastal heritage assets in England, says.

“Whilst we cannot stop the forces of nature, we can ensure what is significant is recorded and our knowledge and memory of a place doesn’t get lost forever. Professor Sear and his team have developed techniques that will be valuable to understanding submerged and eroded terrestrial sites elsewhere.”

Present day Dunwich is a village 14 miles south of Lowestoft in Suffolk, but it was once a thriving port – similar in size to 14th Century London. Extreme storms forced coastal erosion and flooding that have almost completely wiped out this once prosperous town over the past seven centuries.

This process began in 1286 when a huge storm swept much of the settlement into the sea and silted up the Dunwich River.



Carved stonework Chapel of St Katherine was clearly visible in the scans. Credit: University of Southampton
This storm was followed by a succession of others that silted up the harbour and squeezed the economic life out of the town, leading to its eventual demise as a major international port in the 15th Century. It now lies collapsed and in ruins in a watery grave, three to 10 metres below the surface of the sea, just off the present coastline.


A Debris Field near St Peters spotted 10M underwater by the researchers. Credit: University of Southampton
The project to survey the underwater ruins of Dunwich, the world’s largest medieval underwater town site, began in 2008. Six additional ruins on the seabed and 74 potential archaeological sites on the seafloor have since been found.

Combining all known archaeological data from the site, together with old charts and navigation guides to the coast, it has also led to the production of the most accurate and detailed map of the street layout and position of buildings, including the town’s eight churches.
Findings highlights are:

• Identification of the limits of the town, which reveal it was a substantial urban centre occupying approximately 1.8 km2 – almost as large as the City of London

• Confirmation the town had a central area enclosed by a defensive, possibly Saxon earthwork, about 1km2

• The documentation of ten buildings of medieval Dunwich, within this enclosed area, including the location and probable ruins of Blackfriars Friary, St Peter’s, All Saint’s and St Nicholas Churches, and the Chapel of St Katherine

• Additional ruins which initial interpretation suggests are part of a large house, possibly the town hall

• Further evidence that suggests the northern area of the town was largely commercial, with wooden structures associated with the port

• The use of shoreline change analysis to predict where the coastline was located at the height of the town’s prosperity

“Global climate change has made coastal erosion a topical issue in the 21st Century, but Dunwich demonstrates that it has happened before. The severe storms of the 13th and 14th Centuries coincided with a period of climate change, turning the warmer medieval climatic optimum into what we call the Little Ice Age.

“Our coastlines have always been changing, and communities have struggled to live with this change. Dunwich reminds us that it is not only the big storms and their frequency – coming one after another, that drives erosion and flooding, but also the social and economic decisions communities make at the coast.”

“In the end, with the harbour silting up, the town partly destroyed, and falling market incomes, many people simply gave up on Dunwich.” – There is no doubt plants are special in a number of ways. We have previously seen plants that can make music and sing.

Plants are very much alive. Not only do they dislike human noise but they also posses the capacity to learn and communicate.

Researchers have also discovered that plants and humans have more in common than previously thought. Plants possess a number of amazing properties and they can “behave” similar to us.

Another astonishing property is that plants possess intelligence. They can sense danger and know exactly how to avoid predators.

Even more amazing is the fact that although plants are actually deaf, they can feel, see, smell and remember. Not to mention that they are also altruistic!

Recently researcher made another surprising discovery. A group of scientists from the John Innes Centre and University of East Anglia, UK asked themselves why rose petals have rounded ends while their leaves are more pointed and they noticed something unusual. Their study revealed that the shape of petals is controlled by a hidden map located within the plant’s growing buds.


Leaves and petals perform different functions related to their shape.Leaves acquire sugars for a plant via photosynthesis, which can then be transported throughout the plant. Petals develop later in the life cycle and help attract pollinators.

In earlier work, this team had discovered that leaves in the plant Arabidopsis contain a hidden map that orients growth in a pattern that converges towards the tip of the bud, giving leaves their characteristic pointed tips.

In the new study, the researchers discover that Arabidopsis petals contain a similar, hidden map that orients growth in the flower’s bud.


However, the pattern of growth is different to that in leaves — in the petal growth is oriented towards the edge giving a more rounded shape — accounting for the different shapes of leaves and petals. The researchers discovered that molecules called PIN proteins are involved in this oriented growth, which are located towards the ends of each cell.

“The discovery of these hidden polarity maps was a real surprise and provides a simple explanation for how different shapes can be generated,” said Professor Enrico Coen, senior author of the study.


Can we imagine a world without flowers? Flowers are beautiful, offering us delight in their colour, fragrance and form, as well as their medicinal benefits. Flowers also speak to us in the language of the plant form itself, as cultural symbols in different societies, and at the highest levels of inspiration.

In this beautiful and original book, renowned thinker and geometrist Keith Critchlow has chosen to focus on an aspect of flowers that has received perhaps the least attention. This is the flower as teacher of symmetry and geometry (the ‘eternal verities’, as Plato called them). In this sense, he says, flowers can be treated as sources of remembering — a way of recalling our own wholeness, as well as awakening our inner power of recognition and consciousness. What is evident in the geometry of the face of a flower can remind us of the geometry that underlies all existence. Working from his own flower photographs and with every geometric pattern hand-drawn, the author reviews the role of flowers within the perspective of our relationship with the natural world. His illuminating study is an attempt to re-engage the human spirit in its intimate relation with all nature. More here

The team of researchers confirmed their ideas by using computer simulations to test which maps could predict the correct petal shape.

They then confirmed experimentally that PIN proteins located to the right sites to be involved in oriented growth, and identified that another protein, called JAGGED, is involved in promoting growth towards the edge of petals and in establishing the hidden map that determines petal growth and shape.


There is a hidden map inside flowers…

Unlike animal cells, plant cells are unable to move and migrate to form structures of a particular shape, and so these findings help to explain how plants create differently shaped organs — by controlling rates and orientations of cell growth.

From an evolutionary perspective, this system creates the flexibility needed for plant organs to adapt to their environment and to develop different functions.

Isn’t nature amazing? – Sleep paralysis is a strange condition when you feel you are awake but cannot move. It happens when you are between the between stages of wakefulness and sleep. It can take some seconds or even several minutes before you are able to speak.

One can say that you are actually awake in your nightmare. If you have ever experienced sleep paralysis, you will know how awkward this condition can be.

Myths and legends about sleep paralysis persist all over the globe. Over the centuries, symptoms of sleep paralysis have been described in many ways and often attributed to an “evil” presence: unseen night demons in ancient times, the old hag in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, and alien abductors.

Almost every culture throughout history has had stories of shadowy evil creatures that terrify helpless humans at night. People have long sought explanations for this mysterious sleep-time paralysis and the accompanying feelings of terror.


People who experience sleep paralysis often encounter demons in the nightmares.

According to surveys, this strange phenomenon seems to happen to about half the population at least once during a lifetime.

Scientists are now suggesting that it is essential to examine the causes and interpretations of sleep paralysis from both a scientific and cultural perspective.

During a meeting organized earlier this year by the Sleep Paralysis Project Christopher French, Professor of Psychology at Goldsmiths, University of London’s Anomalistic Psychology Research Unit. discussed common symptoms of the experience itself.

“You’re in this state, you realise you can’t move, and you get a very strong sense of presence. You feel certain that there is someone, or something in the room with you and whatever that thing or person is they mean you no good at all. They’re evil, in some cases a pure evil…

Very often these episodes are associated with hallucinations. These might be visual (you might see lights moving around in the room, dark shadows, grotesque monstrous forms); they might be auditory (you might hear footsteps, or voices, or mechanical sounds); they might be tactile (you might feel as if you are being touched, or as if someone is holding you tightly, or as if someone is dragging you out of the bed. Sometimes these can turn into full blown out of body experience,” Professor French said.


Filmmaker Carla MacKinnon became interested in the subject when she started waking up several times a week unable to move, with the sense that a disturbing presence was in the room with her.“I was getting quite a lot of sleep paralysis over the summer, quite frequently, and I became quite interested in what was happening, what medically or scientifically, it was all about,” MacKinnon said.

Her research is becoming a short film and multiplatform art project exploring the strange and spooky phenomenon of sleep paralysis.

The film, supported by the Wellcome Trust and set to screen at the Royal College of Arts in London, will debut in May.

MacKinnon has met several psychologists and other experts who offered their opinion on the subject and some have even shared some own personal experiences.

“I looked at my right arm and willed it to move. I commanded it to move. It stayed put. When I tried to sit up or roll over nothing happened. I panicked. On the inside I was a twisting fury, but the shell of my body remained motionless. I gave up the struggle, overwhelmed by an intuition that if I tried any harder I would break through the shell and float away…

I now recognise this as a lucid dream, an hallucinatory state in the hinterlands of slumber where the mind is alert, but the body remains bound by the paralysis of sleep – the intersection of dream life and reality,” said Dr Paul Broks, a neuropsychologist and writer.



Would you tell people about your “demon dreams”?

As previously mentioned it is very common people who suffer from sleep paralysis encounter demons.

“It was like nothing I’d ever experienced before,” recalls Hannah Foster from Brighton, UK. “After a normal day at work, I went to bed around 11pm, as always, and the next thing I remember is waking up, basically paralysed.

It was terrifying. And the more I panicked, the more it felt like I couldn’t breathe properly.

The second time, I knew what was happening – but as well as the paralysis, I also saw a terrifying black figure.

It looked a bit like a demon – with a scrunched, ugly face, like a gargoyle. I tried to scream and move away from it.”

It is estimated that millions of people have experienced something similar, but many people refuse to talk about it.

“Sufferers may be reluctant to talk of their experiences, for fear of being shunned or ridiculed as “crazy”. This can lead to social isolation and even marital breakdown,” said Professor French.

Some scientists like for example David Morgan, a Psychoanalyst and Psychotherapist are focusing on interpretations of hallucinatory experiences. Dr. Morgan suggests that the content of hallucinations can offer symbolic insights into the patient’s feelings.

“People take symbols from wherever they can… the dwarf, the hag – probably from fairy stories – represent an oppressive force keeping you down. Something in your mind that prevents you from being free,” Dr. Morgan sai