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Hymn to King Shulgi

Posted: July 29, 2014 by noxprognatus in Texts


From: History begins at Sumer, by Samuel Noah Kramer, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1981.

Shulgi, the son of Ur-Nammu, the founder of the Third Dynasty of Ur, is one of the more renowned kings of Sumer, whose reign endured for almost half a century. His achievements were many in all fields: as a military commander, temple builder, mecenas of the arts and athlete. It is my belief that Shulgi is the proto-Solomon, a wise and passionate priest-king and beloved by the gods and by his people.

I, the king, a warrior from the (mother´s) womb am I,
I, Shulgi, a mighty man from the day I was born,
A fierce-eyed lion born of a dragon am I,
King of the four corners of the Universe am I,
Herdsman, shepherd of the blackheads am I,
The trustworthy, the god of all the lands am I,
The son born of Ninsun am I,
Called to the heart of holy Anu am I,
He who was blessed by Enlil am I,
Shulgi, the beloved of Ninlil am I,
Truly cherished by Nintu am I,
Endowed with wisdom by Enki am I,
The mighty king of Nanna am I,
The open-mouthed lion of Utu am I,
Shulgi chosen for the vulva of Inanna am I,
A princely donkey all set for the road am I,
A tail-swinging horse on the highway am I,
A noble donkey of Sumugan eager for the course am I,
The wise scribe of Nidaba am I,
Like my heroship, li,e my might,
I am accomplished in wisdom,
I vie with tis wisdom´s true word,
I love justice,
I do not love evil,
I hate the evil word,
I, Shulgi, a mighty king, supreme am I.
Because I am a powerful man rejoicing in his loins,
I enlarged the foothpaths, straightened the highways of the land,
I made travel secure, built there big house [rest houses for travelers]
Planted gardens alongside of them, established resting places there
Settled there friendly folk
So that who comes from below, who comes from above,
Might refresh themselves at the cool of the day,
The wayfarer who travels the highway at night,
Might find refuge there as in a well-built city.
That my name be established unto distant days, that it leave not this mouth,
That my praise be spread wide in the land,
That I be eulogized in all the lands,
I, the runner, rose in my strength, all set for the course,
From Nippur to Ur,
I resolved to traverse as if it were but a distance of one double-hour,
Like a lion that wearies not of its virility I arose,
Put a girdle about my loins,
Swung my arms like a dove feverishly fleeing a snake,
Spread wide the knees like an Anzu bird with eyes lifted toward the mountains.
The inhabitants of the cities that I had founded in the land swarmed all about me,
My blackheaded people, as numerous as ewes, marveled at me,
Like a mountain kid hurrying to its shelter,
When Utu shed his broad light on man´s habitations,
I entered the Ekishnugal, (temple of Nanna)
Filled with abundance the great stall, the house of Sin,
Slaughtered oxen there, multiplied sheep,
Made resound there the drum and the timbrel
Conducted there the tigi-music, the sweet.
I, Shulgi, the multiplier of all things, brought bread offerings there,
Inspiring fear from my royal seat like a lion,
In the lofty palace of Ninegal,
I scoured my knees, I bathed in fresh water,
Bent the knees, ate bread,
Like an owl and a falcon I arose,
Returned triumphantly to Nippur.
On that day, the storm howled, the tempest swirled,
The North Wind and the South Wind roared violently,
Lightning devoured in heaven alongside the seven winds,
The deafening storm made the earth tremble,
Ishkur thundered throughout the heavenly expanse
The rains above embraced the waters below
Its little stones, its big stones lashed at my back.
But I the king was unafraid, uncoweed,
Like a young lion I was set for the spring,
Like a donkey of the steppe I rushed forward,
My heart full of happiness I sped along the course,
Racing like a donkey folad journeying all alone,
Like Utu facing homeward,
I traversed the journey of 15 double hours,
My acolytes gazed at me in wonder,
As in one day I celebrated the esbesh feast both in Ur and Nippur.
With virile Utu, my brother and friend,
I drank beer in the palace founded by Anu,
My minstrels sang fro me the seven tigi-hymns,
My spouse, the maid Inanna, the queen, the luxuriance of heaven and earth,
Seated me by her side at its palace banquet
I exalted myself saying:
“Wheresoever I lift my eyes, thither will you go with me,
Wheresoever my heart moves me, there you will be welcomed”.
Anu set the holy crown upon my head,
Gave me to hold the scepter in the lapis lazuli Ekur,
Raised heaven-high my firmly founded throne on the white dais,
Exalted there the power of my kingship,
So that I bent over all the foreign lands, made secure the Land of Sumer,
And the four corners of the universe, the people with heads bowed called my name,
Chant holy songs,
Pronounce my exaltation saying:
“He that is the noble power of kingship, the cherished one,
Presented by Sin our of the Ekishnugal,
Heroship, night and a good life,
Endowed with noble power by Nunamnir,
Shulgi, the destroyer of all the foreign lands, who makes secure the land of Sumer,
Who in accordance with the me of the universe has no rival,
Shulgi, cherished by the trustworthy son of Anu (Nanna)”

Enlil and Ninlil

Posted: July 28, 2014 by noxprognatus in Texts

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Enlil and Ninlil: translation

1-12There was a city, there was a city — the one we live in. Nibru was the city, the one we live in. Dur-jicnimbar was the city, the one we live in. Id-sala is its holy river, Kar-jectina is its quay. Kar-asar is its quay where boats make fast. Pu-lal is its fresh-water well. Id-nunbir-tum is its branching canal, and if one measures from there, its cultivated land is 50 sar each way. Enlil was one of its young men, and Ninlil was one its young women. Nun-bar-ce-gunu was one of its wise old women.

13-21At that time the maiden was advised by her own mother, Ninlil was advised by Nun-bar-ce-gunu: “The river is holy, woman! The river is holy — don’t bathe in it! Ninlil, don’t walk along the bank of the Id-nunbir-tum! His eye is bright, the lord’s eye is bright, he will look at you! The Great Mountain, Father Enlil — his eye is bright, he will look at you! The shepherd who decides all destinies — his eye is bright, he will look at you! Straight away he will want to have intercourse, he will want to kiss! He will be happy to pour lusty semen into the womb, and then he will leave you to it!”

22-34She advised her from the heart, she gave wisdom to her. The river is holy; the woman bathed in the holy river. As Ninlil walked along the bank of the Id-nunbir-tum, his eye was bright, the lord’s eye was bright, he looked at her. The Great Mountain, Father Enlil — his eye was bright, he looked at her. The shepherd who decides all destinies — his eye was bright, he looked at her. The king said to her, “I want to have sex with you!”, but he could not make her let him. Enlil said to her, “I want to kiss you!”, but he could not make her let him. “My vagina is small, it does not know pregnancy. My lips are young, they do not know kissing. If my mother learns of it, she will slap my hand! If my father learns of it, he will lay hands on me! But right now, no one will stop me from telling this to my girl friend!”

35-53Enlil spoke to his minister Nuska: “Nuska, my minister!” “At your service! What do you wish?” “Master builder of the E-kur!” “At your service, my lord!” “Has anyone had intercourse with, has anyone kissed a maiden so beautiful, so radiant — Ninlil, so beautiful, so radiant?” The minister brought his master across by boat, bringing him over with the rope of a small boat, bringing him over in a big boat. The lord, floating downstream to …… — he was actually to have intercourse with her, he was actually to kiss her! — father Enlil, floating downstream to …… — he was actually to have intercourse with her, he was actually to kiss her! — he grasped hold of her whom he was seeking — he was actually to have intercourse with her, he was actually to kiss her! — so as to lie with her on a small bank ……. He actually had intercourse with her, he actually kissed her. At this one intercourse, at this one kissing he poured the seed of Suen-Acimbabbar into her womb.

54-64Enlil was walking in the Ki-ur. As Enlil was going about in the Ki-ur, the fifty great gods and the seven gods who decide destinies had Enlil arrested in the Ki-ur. Enlil, the ritually impure, left the city. Nunamnir, the ritually impure, left the city. (2 mss. have instead: “Enlil, ritually impure, leave the city! Nunamnir, ritually impure, leave the city!”) Enlil, in accordance with what had been decided, Nunamnir, in accordance with what had been decided, Enlil went. Ninlil followed. Nunamnir went, the maiden chased him.

65-90Enlil spoke to the man at the city gate: “City gatekeeper! Keeper of the barrier! Porter! Keeper of the holy barrier! When your lady Ninlil comes, if she asks after me, don’t tell her where I am!” Ninlil addressed the city gatekeeper: “City gatekeeper! Keeper of the barrier! Porter! Keeper of the holy barrier! When did your lord Enlil go by?” She spoke to him; Enlil answered as the city gatekeeper: “My lord has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one. Enlil has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one.” “I will make clear my aim and explain my intent. You can fill my womb once it is empty — Enlil, lord of all the lands, has had sex with me! Just as Enlil is your lord, so am I your lady!” “If you are my lady, let my hand touch your ……!” “The seed of your lord, the bright seed, is in my womb. The seed of Suen, the bright seed, is in my womb.” “My master’s seed can go up to the heavens! Let my seed go downwards! Let my seed go downwards, instead of my master’s seed!” Enlil, as the city gatekeeper, got her to lie down in the chamber. He had intercourse with her there, he kissed her there. At this one intercourse, at this one kissing he poured the seed of Nergal-Meslamta-eda into her womb.

91-116Enlil went. Ninlil followed. Nunamnir went, the maiden chased him. Enlil approached the man of the Id-kura river of the underworld, the man-eating river. “My man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river! When your lady Ninlil comes, if she asks after me, don’t you tell her where I am!” Ninlil approached the man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river. “My man of the Id-kura, the man-eating river! When did your lord Enlil go by?”, she said to him. Enlil answered as the man of the Id-kura: “My lord has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one. Enlil has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one.” “I will make clear my aim and explain my intent. You can fill my womb once it is empty — Enlil, lord of all the lands, has had sex with me! Just as Enlil is your lord, so am I your lady!” “If you are my lady, let my hand touch your ……!” “The seed of your lord, the bright seed, is in my womb. The seed of Suen, the bright seed, is in my womb.” “My master’s seed can go up to the heavens! Let my seed go downwards! Let my seed go downwards, instead of my master’s seed!” Enlil, as the man of the Id-kura, got her to lie down in the chamber. He had intercourse with her there, he kissed her there. At this one intercourse, at this one kissing he poured into her womb the seed of Ninazu, the king who stretches measuring lines over the fields.

117-142Enlil went. Ninlil followed. Nunamnir went, the maiden chased him. Enlil approached SI.LU.IGI, the man of the ferryboat. “SI.LU.IGI, my man of the ferryboat! When your lady Ninlil comes, if she asks after me, don’t you tell her where I am!” Ninlil approached the man of the ferryboat. “Man of the ferryboat! When did your lord Enlil go by?”, she said to him. Enlil answered as the man SI.LU.IGI: “My lord has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one. Enlil has not talked with me at all, O loveliest one.” “I will make clear my aim and explain my intent. You can fill my womb once it is empty — Enlil, king of all the lands, has had sex with me! Just as Enlil is your lord, so am I your lady!” “If you are my lady, let my hand touch your ……!” “The seed of your lord, the bright seed, is in my womb. The seed of Suen, the bright seed, is in my womb.” “My master’s seed can go up to the heavens! Let my seed go downwards! Let my seed go downwards, instead of my master’s seed!” Enlil, as SI.LU.IGI, got her to lie down in the chamber. He had intercourse with her there, he kissed her there. At this one intercourse, at this one kissing he poured into her womb the seed of Enbilulu, the inspector of canals.

143-154You are lord! You are king! Enlil, you are lord! You are king! Nunamnir, you are lord! You are king! You are supreme lord, you are powerful lord! Lord who makes flax grow, lord who makes barley grow, you are lord of heaven, Lord Plenty, lord of the earth! You are lord of the earth, Lord Plenty, lord of heaven! Enlil in heaven, Enlil is king! Lord whose utterances (2 mss. have instead: whose pronouncements) cannot be altered at all! His primordial utterances will not be changed! For the praise spoken for Ninlil the mother, praise be to (one ms. adds: the Great Mountain,) Father Enlil!

Sage 2

Posted: April 8, 2013 by noxprognatus in Texts

Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi


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“Al-Razi” redirects here. For the Islamic theologian and philosopher, see Fakhr al-Din al-Razi.  For other uses, see Razi (disambiguation).
Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī
Zakariya Razi 001.JPG Razi was the preeminent pharmacist and physician of his time.
Born August 26, 865[citation needed] Rey, Persia
Died October 15 925 Rey
Era Medieval era
Region Persia
Religion Muslim
School Persian science
Main interests Chemistry, Medicine, Biology, Physics, Philosophy
Notable ideas The first to produce acids such as sulfuric acid, writing up limited or extensive notes on diseases such as smallpox and chickenpox, a pioneer in ophthalmology, author of first book on pediatrics, making leading contributions in inorganic and organic chemistry, also the author of several philosophical works.

Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī (Arabic: أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن زكريا الرازي‎ Abu Bakr Mohammad Bin Yahia Bin Zakaria Al-Razi)(Persian: محمد زکریای رازی‎ Mohammad-e Zakariā-ye Rāzi), known as Rhazes or Rasis after medieval Latinists (August 26, 865 – 925), was a Persian Muslim[1][2] polymath, a prominent figure in Islamic Golden Age,[3] physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher, and scholar.[4]

Numerous “firsts” in medical research, clinical care, and chemistry are attributed to him, including being the first to differentiate smallpox from measles, and the discovery of numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol, kerosene, among others.[5] Edward Granville Browne considers him as “probably the greatest and most original of all the physicians, and one of the most prolific as an author”.[6]

Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine, alchemy, music, and philosophy, recorded in over 200 books and articles in various fields of science. He was well-versed in Ancient Persian, Greek and Ancient Indian medical knowledge and made numerous advances in medicine through own observations and discoveries.[7]

Educated in music, mathematics, philosophy, and metaphysics, he chose medicine as his professional field. As a physician, he was an early proponent of experimental medicine and has been described as the father of pediatrics.[8] He was also a pioneer of ophthalmology. He was among the first to use Humoralism to distinguish one contagious disease from another. In particular, Razi was the first physician to distinguish smallpox and measles through his clinical characterization of the two diseases. He became chief physician of Rey and Baghdad hospitals.

He traveled extensively, mostly in Persia. As a teacher in medicine, he attracted students of all disciplines and was said to be compassionate and devoted to the service of his patients, whether rich or poor.[citation needed]



[edit] Biography

This section cites its sources but does not provide page references. You can help to improve it by introducing citations that are more precise. (September 2010)

Colophon of Razi’s Book of Medicine.

Razi was born in the silk road passing city of Rey.[9] His name Razi in Persian means “from the city of Rey”, an ancient town called Ragha in old Persian and Ragâ in Avestan.[10] It is located on the southern slopes of the Alborz Range situated near Tehran, Iran. In this city (like Ibn Sina) he accomplished most of his work[11]

He studied medicine under Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, known as Ali ibn Rabban al-Tabari or Ali ibn Sahl, (Cf. al-Qifti, Usaibi’ah), a physician and philosopher born in Merv about 192 AH (808 C.E.) (d. approx. 240 AH (855 C.E.)). Ali ibn Sahl belonged to the medical school of Tabaristan or Hyrcania.

Razi became famous in his native city as a physician. He became Director of the hospital of Rey (Cf. ibn Juljul, al-Qifti, ibn abi Usaibi’ah), during the reign of Mansur ibn Ishaq ibn Ahmad ibn Asad who was Governor of Rey from 290-296 AH (902-908 C.E.) on behalf of his cousin Ahmad ibn Isma’il ibn Ahmad, second Samanian ruler. Razi dedicated his al-Tibb al-‘Mansuri to Mansur ibn Ishaq ibn Ahmad, which was verified in a handwritten manuscript of his book. This was refuted by ibn al-Nadim’, but al-Qifti and ibn abi Usaibi’ah confirmed that the named Mansur was indeed Mansur ibn Isma’il who died in 365 AH (975 C.E.). Razi moved from Rey to Baghdad during Caliph Muktafi’s reign (approx. 289-295 AH (901-907 C.E.)) where he again held a position as Chief Director of a hospital.

After al-Muktafi’s death in 295 AH (907 C.E.) Razi allegedly returned to Rey where he gathered many students around him. As Ibn al-Nadim relates in Fihrist, Razi was then a Shaikh (title given to one entitled to teach), surrounded by several circles of students. When someone arrived with a scientific question, this question was passed on to students of the ‘first circle’. if they did not know the answer, it was passed on to those of the ‘second circle’… and so on and on, until at last, when all others had failed to supply an answer, it came to Razi himself. We know of at least one of these students who became a physician. Razi was a very generous man, with a humane behavior towards his patients, and acting charitable to the poor. He used to give them full treatment without charging any fee, nor demanding any other payment.[citation needed]

His eye affliction started with cataracts and ended in total blindness.[citation needed] The cause of his blindness is uncertain. One account attributes the cause to have been a blow to the head by his patron, al-Mansour. Abulfaraj (Historia Compendosia Dynastiarum, p.291) and Casiri claim that the cause was eating beans.[12] Another attributes the cause of his blindness to a beating ordered by a mullah who was offended by his work, al-Hawi. The beating was administered with the manuscript of the work.[13]

During that time he was approached by a physician offering an ointment to cure his blindness. Al-Razi then asked him how many layers does the eye contain and when he was unable to answer he refused his services and the ointment stating “my eyes will not be treated by one who does not know the basics of its anatomy”.[14] One of his pupils from Tabaristan came to look after him, but, according to al-Biruni, he refused to be treated, proclaiming it was useless as his hour of death was approaching. Some days later he died in Rey, on the 5th of Sha’ban 313 AH (27 October 925).

However, his fame spread and lived on. In an undated catalogue of the library at Peterborough Abbey, most likely from the 14th century, he is listed as a part author of ten books on medicine.[15]

[edit] Razi’s masters and opponents

Razi studied medicine under Ali ibn Rabban al-Tabari, however, Ibn al-Nadim indicates that he studied philosophy under al-Bakhi, who had travelled much and possessed great knowledge of philosophy and ancient sciences.

Razi’s hamud opponents, on the contrary, are well-known. They are the following:

  • Abu al-Rabban al-Balki, chief of the Mu’tazilah of Baghdad (d. 319 AH/931 CE), a contemporary of Razi who wrote many refutations about Razi’s books, especially in his Ilm al-Ilahi. His disagreements with Razi entailed his thoughts on the concept of ‘Time’.
  • Shuhaid ibn al-Husain al-Balkhi, with whom Razi had many controversies; one of these was on the concept of ‘Pleasure’, expounded in his Tafdll Ladhdhat al-Nafs which abu Sulaiman al-Mantiqi al-Sijistani quotes in his work Siwan al-Hikmah. Al-Balkhi died prior to 329 AH/940 CE.
  • Abu Hatim al-Razi (Ahmad ibn Hamdan). an Isma’ili missionary, was one of his most influential opponents (d. 322 AH/933-934 CE). He published his controversies with Razi in his book A’lam al-Nubuwwah. Because of this book, Razi’s thoughts on Prophets and Religion are preserved to the present time.
  • Ibn al-Tammar (seemingly being abu Bakr Husain al-Tammar, according to Kraus) was a physician who had some disputes with Razi, as documented by Abu Hatim al-Razi in A’lam al-Nubuwwah. Ibn al-Tammar disagreed with Razi’s book al-Tibb al-Ruhani but Razi rebutted him in two antitheses:
First refutation of al-Tammar’s disagreement with Misma’i concerning ‘Matter’.
Second refutation of al-Tammar’s opinion of ‘the Atmosphere of subterranean habitations’.
  • Following are authors as described by Razi in his writings:
    • Al-Misma’i, a Mutakallim, who opposed ‘materialists’, counteracted Razi’s treatise.
    • Jarir, a physician who had a theory about ‘The eating of black mulberries after consuming water-melon’.
    • Al-Hasan ibn Mubarik al-Ummi, to whom Razi wrote two epistles with commentaries.
    • Al-Kayyal, a Mutakallim: al-Razi wrote a book on about his Theory of the Imam.
    • Mansur ibn Talhah, being the author of the book “Being“, which was criticized by al-Razi.
    • Muhammad ibn al-Laith al-Rasa’ili whose opposition against alchemists was disputed by al-Razi.
  • Ahmad ibn al-Tayyib al-Sarakhasi (d. 286 AH/899 CE), was an older contemporary of al-Razi. Al-Razi disagreed with him on the question of ‘bitter taste’. He moreover opposed his teacher Ya’qub ibn Ishaq al-Kindi, regarding his writings, in which he discredited alchemists.

More names could be added to this list of all people opposed by al-Razi, specifically the Mu’tazilah and different Mutakallimin.

[edit] Contributions to medicine

[edit] Smallpox vs. measles

“Smallpox appears when blood ‘boils’ and is infected, resulting in vapours being expelled. Thus juvenile blood (which looks like wet extracts appearing on the skin) is being transformed into richer blood, having the color of mature wine. At this stage, smallpox shows up essentially as ‘bubbles found in wine’ – (as blisters) – … this disease can also occur at other times – (meaning: not only during childhood) -. The best thing to do during this first stage is to keep away from it, otherwise this disease might turn into an epidemic.”

This diagnosis is acknowledged by the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1911), which states: “The most trustworthy statements as to the early existence of the disease are found in an account by the 9th-century Persian physician Rhazes, by whom its symptoms were clearly described, its pathology explained by a humoral or fermentation theory, and directions given for its treatment.”

Razi’s book: al-Judari wa al-Hasbah (On Smallpox and Measles) was the first book describing smallpox and measles as distinct diseases.[citation needed] It was translated more than a dozen times into Latin and other European languages. Its lack of dogmatism and its Hippocratic reliance on clinical observation show Razi’s medical methods. For example:

“The eruption of smallpox is preceded by a continued fever, pain in the back, itching in the nose and nightmares during sleep. These are the more acute symptoms of its approach together with a noticeable pain in the back accompanied by fever and an itching felt by the patient all over his body. A swelling of the face appears, which comes and goes, and one notices an overall inflammatory color noticeable as a strong redness on both cheeks and around both eyes. One experiences a heaviness of the whole body and great restlessness, which expresses itself as a lot of stretching and yawning. There is a pain in the throat and chest and one finds it difficult to breathe and cough. Additional symptoms are: dryness of breath, thick spittle, hoarseness of the voice, pain and heaviness of the head, restlessness, nausea and anxiety. (Note the difference: restlessness, nausea and anxiety occur more frequently with ‘measles’ than with smallpox. At the other hand, pain in the back is more apparent with smallpox than with measles). Altogether one experiences heat over the whole body, one has an inflamed colon and one shows an overall shining redness, with a very pronounced redness of the gums.”[citation needed]

[edit] Pharmacy

Razi contributed in many ways to the early practice of pharmacy by compiling texts, in which he introduces the use of ‘mercurial ointments’ and his development of apparatus such as mortars, flasks, spatulas and phials, which were used in pharmacies until the early twentieth century .

[edit] Ethics of medicine

On a professional level, Razi introduced many practical, progressive, medical and psychological ideas. He attacked charlatans and fake doctors who roamed the cities and countryside selling their nostrums and “cures”. At the same time, he warned that even highly educated doctors did not have the answers to all medical problems and could not cure all sicknesses or heal every disease, which was humanly speaking impossible. To become more useful in their services and truer to their calling, Razi advised practitioners to keep up with advanced knowledge by continually studying medical books and exposing themselves to new information. He made a distinction between curable and incurable diseases. Pertaining to the latter, he commented that in the case of advanced cases of cancer and leprosy the physician should not be blamed when he could not cure them. To add a humorous note, Razi felt great pity for physicians who took care for the well being of princes, nobility, and women, because they did not obey the doctor’s orders to restrict their diet or get medical treatment, thus making it most difficult being their physician.

He also wrote the following on medical ethics:

“The doctor’s aim is to do good, even to our enemies, so much more to our friends, and my profession forbids us to do harm to our kindred, as it is instituted for the benefit and welfare of the human race, and God imposed on physicians the oath not to compose mortiferous remedies.”[16]

[edit] Books and articles on medicine

The Virtuous Life (al-Hawi الحاوي).
This monumental medical encyclopedia in nine volumes — known in Europe also as The Large Comprehensive or Continens Liber (جامع الكبير) — contains considerations and criticism on the Greek philosophers Aristotle and Plato, and expresses innovative views on many subjects. Because of this book alone, many scholars consider Razi the greatest medical doctor of the Middle Ages.
The al-Hawi is not a formal medical encyclopedia, but a posthumous compilation of Razi’s working notebooks, which included knowledge gathered from other books as well as original observations on diseases and therapies, based on his own clinical experience. It is significant since it contains a celebrated monograph on smallpox, the earliest one known. It was translated into Latin in 1279 by Faraj ben Salim, a physician of Sicilian-Jewish origin employed by Charles of Anjou, and after which it had a considerable influence in Europe.
The al-Hawi also criticized the views of Galen, after Razi had observed many clinical cases which did not follow Galen’s descriptions of fevers. For example, he stated that Galen’s descriptions of urinary ailments were inaccurate as he had only seen three cases, while Razi had studied hundreds of such cases in hospitals of Baghdad and Rey.[17]
A medical adviser for the general public (Man la Yahduruhu Al-Tabib) (من لا يحضره الطبيب)
Razi was possibly the first Persian doctor to deliberately write a home medical manual (remedial) directed at the general public. He dedicated it to the poor, the traveler, and the ordinary citizen who could consult it for treatment of common ailments when a doctor was not available. This book, of course, is of special interest to the history of pharmacy since similar books were very popular until the 20th century. Razi described in its 36 chapters, diets and drug components that can be found in either an apothecary, a market place, in well-equipped kitchens, or and in military camps. Thus, every intelligent person could follow its instructions and prepare the proper recipes with good results.
Some of the illnesses treated were headaches, colds, coughing, melancholy and diseases of the eye, ear, and stomach. For example, he prescribed for a feverish headache: ” 2 parts of duhn (oily extract) of rose, to be mixed with 1 part of vinegar, in which a piece of linen cloth is dipped and compressed on the forehead”. He recommended as a laxative, ” 7 drams of dried violet flowers with 20 pears, macerated and well mixed, then strained. Add to this filtrate, 20 drams of sugar for a drink. In cases of melancholy, he invariably recommended prescriptions, which included either poppies or its juice (opium), Cuscuta epithymum (clover dodder) or both. For an eye-remedy, he advised myrrh, saffron, and frankincense, 2 drams each, to be mixed with 1 dram of yellow arsenic formed into tablets. Each tablet was to be dissolved in a sufficient quantity of coriander water and used as eye drops.
Doubts About Galen (Shukuk ‘ala alinusor)
In his book Doubts about Galen, Razi rejects several claims made by the Greek physician, as far as the alleged superiority of the Greek language and many of his cosmological and medical views. He links medicine with philosophy, and states that sound practice demands independent thinking. He reports that Galen’s descriptions do not agree with his own clinical observations regarding the run of a fever. And in some cases he finds that his clinical experience exceeds Galen‘s.
He criticized moreover Galen’s theory that the body possessed four separate “humors” (liquid substances), whose balance are the key to health and a natural body-temperature. A sure way to upset such a system was to insert a liquid with a different temperature into the body resulting in an increase or decrease of bodily heat, which resembled the temperature of that particular fluid. Razi noted that a warm drink would heat up the body to a degree much higher than its own natural temperature. Thus the drink would trigger a response from the body, rather than transferring only its own warmth or coldness to it. (Cf. I. E. Goodman)
This line of criticism essentially had the potentiality to destroy completely Galen’s Theory of Humours including Aristotle’s theory of the Four Elements, on which it was grounded. Razi’s own alchemical experiments suggested other qualities of matter, such as “oiliness” and “sulphurousness”, or inflammability and salinity, which were not readily explained by the traditional fire, water, earth, and air division of elements.
Razi’s challenge to the current fundamentals of medical theory were quite controversial. Many accused him of ignorance and arrogance, even though he repeatedly expressed his praise and gratitude to Galen for his contributions and labors, saying:
“I prayed to God to direct and lead me to the truth in writing this book. It grieves me to oppose and criticize the man Galen from whose sea of knowledge I have drawn much. Indeed, he is the Master and I am the disciple. Although this reverence and appreciation will and should not prevent me from doubting, as I did, what is erroneous in his theories. I imagine and feel deeply in my heart that Galen has chosen me to undertake this task, and if he were alive, he would have congratulated me on what I am doing. I say this because Galen’s aim was to seek and find the truth and bring light out of darkness. I wish indeed he were alive to read what I have published.”
Crystallization of ancient knowledge, and the refusal to accept the fact that new data and ideas indicate that present day knowledge ultimately might surpass that of previous generations.
Razi believed that contemporary scientists and scholars are by far better equipped, more knowledgeable, and more competent than the ancient ones, due to the accumulated knowledge at their disposal. Razi’s attempt to overthrow blind acceptance of the unchallenged authority of ancient sages encouraged and stimulated research and advances in the arts, technology, and sciences.
The Diseases of Children
Razi is considered the father of pediatrics for writing The Diseases of Children, the first book to deal with pediatrics as an independent field of medicine.[8]
Mental health
As many other theorists in his time of exploration of illnesses he believed that mental illnesses were caused by demons. Demons were believed to enter the body and possess the body. This shows that mental illnesses were understood to be out of the control of the sufferer.

[edit] Books on medicine

This is a partial list of Razi’s books and articles in medicine, according to Ibn Abi Usaybi’ah. Some books may have been copied or printed under different names.

  • al-Hawi (الحاوي), al-Hawi al-Kabir (الحاوي الكبير). Also known as The Virtuous Life, Continens Liber. The large medical Encyclopedia containing mostly recipes and Razi’s notebooks.
  • Isbateh Elmeh Pezeshki (Persian اثبات علم پزشكى), (“Proving the Science of Medicine”).
  • Dar Amadi bar Elmeh Pezeshki (Persian درآمدى بر علم پزشكى) (“Outcome of the Science of Medicine”).
  • Rade Manaategha ‘tibb jahez
  • Rade Naghzotibbeh Nashi
  • The Experimentation of Medical Science and its Application
  • Guidance
  • Kenash
  • The Classification of Diseases
  • Royal Medicine
  • For One Without a Doctor (من لايحضره الطبيب)
  • The Book of Simple Medicine
  • The Great Book of Krabadin
  • The Little Book of Krabadin
  • The Book of Taj or The Book of the Crown
  • The Book of Disasters
  • Food and its Harmfulness
  • al-Judari wa al-Hasbah, Translation: A treatise on the Small-pox and Measles[18]
  • Ketab dar Padid Amadaneh Sangrizeh (‍Persian كتاب در پديدآمدن سنگريزه) (“The Book of Formation of small stones (Stones in the Kidney and Bladder)”)
  • Ketabeh Dardeh Roodeha (Persian كتاب درد روده‌ها) (“The Book of Pains in the Intestine”)
  • Ketab dar Dard Paay va Dardeh Peyvandhayyeh Andam (Persian كتاب در درد پاى و درد پيوندهاى اندام) (“The Book of Pains in Feet/Legs and Pains in Linked Limbs”)
  • Ketab dar Falej
  • The Book of Tooth Aches
  • Dar Hey’ateh Kabed ‍(Persian در هيأت كبد) (“About the Liver”)
  • Dar Hey’ateh Ghalb (About Heart Ache) ‍(Persian در هيأت قلب) (“About the Heart”)
  • About the Nature of Doctors
  • About the Earwhole
  • Dar Rag Zadan (Persian در رگ زدن) (“About Handling Vessels”)
  • Seydeh neh/sidneh
  • Ketabeh Ibdal
  • Food For Patients
  • Soodhayeh Serkangabin (Persian سودهاى سركنگبين) or Benefits of Honey and Vinegar Mixture
  • Darmanhayeh Abneh
  • The Book of Surgical Instruments
  • The Book on Oil
  • Fruits Before and After Lunch
  • Book on Medical Discussion (with Jarir Tabib)
  • Book on Medical Discussion II (with Abu Feiz)
  • About the Menstrual Cycle
  • Ghi Kardan or vomiting (Persian قى كردن)
  • Snow and Medicine
  • Snow and Thirst
  • The Foot
  • Fatal Diseases
  • About Poisoning
  • Hunger
  • Soil in Medicine
  • The Thirst of Fish
  • Sleep Sweating
  • Warmth in Clothing
  • Spring and Disease
  • Misconceptions of a Doctors Capabilities
  • The Social Role of Doctors

[edit] Translations

Razi’s notable books and articles on medicine (in English) include:

  • Mofid al Khavas, The Book for the Elite.
  • The Book of Experiences
  • The Cause of the Death of Most Animals because of Poisonous Winds
  • The Physicians’ Experiments
  • The Person Who Has No Access to Physicians
  • The Big Pharmacology
  • The Small Pharmacology
  • Gout
  • Al Shakook ala Jalinoos, The Doubt on Galen
  • Kidney and Bladder Stones
  • Ketab tibb ar-Ruhani,The Spiritual Physik of Rhazes.

[edit] Alchemy

Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi (Rhazes) isolated many chemical substances, produced many medications, and described many laboratory apparatus.

[edit] The Transmutation of Metals

Razi’s interest in alchemy and his strong belief in the possibility of transmutation of lesser metals to silver and gold was attested half a century after his death by Ibn an-Nadim‘s book (The Philosophers Stone-Lapis Philosophorum in Latin). Nadim attributed a series of twelve books to Razi, plus an additional seven, including his refutation to al-Kindi‘s denial of the validity of alchemy. Al-Kindi (801-873 CE) had been appointed by the Abbasid Caliph Ma’mum founder of Baghdad, to ‘the House of Wisdom‘ in that city, he was a philosopher and an opponent of alchemy. Finally we will mention Razi’s two best-known alchemical texts, which largely superseded his earlier ones: al-Asrar (الاسرار “The Secrets”), and Sirr al-Asrar (سر الاسرار “The Secret of Secrets”), which incorporates much of the previous work.

Apparently Razi’s contemporaries believed that he had obtained the secret of turning iron and copper into gold. Biographer Khosro Moetazed reports in Mohammad Zakaria Razi that a certain General Simjur confronted Razi in public, and asked whether that was the underlying reason for his willingness to treat patients without a fee. “It appeared to those present that Razi was reluctant to answer; he looked sideways at the general and replied”:

“I understand alchemy and I have been working on the characteristic properties of metals for an extended time. However, it still has not turned out to be evident to me, how one can transmute gold from copper. Despite the research from the ancient scientists done over the past centuries, there has been no answer. I very much doubt if it is possible…”

According to one legend he could have been blinded by steaming vapors during an accident in one of his experiments. He managed to escape with no injuries.[19][verification needed]

[edit] Chemical instruments and substances

Razi developed several chemical instruments that remain in use to this day. He is known to have perfected methods of distillation and extraction. ar-Razi dismissed the idea of potions and dispensed with magic, meaning the reliance on symbols as causes. Although Razi does not reject the idea that miracles exist, in the sense of unexplained phenomena in nature, his alchemical stockroom was enriched with products of Persian mining and manufacturing, even with sal ammoniac a Chinese discovery. He relied predominantly on the concept of ‘dominant’ forms or essences, which is the Neoplatonic conception of causality rather than an intellectual approach or a mechanical one).[citation needed] Razi’s alchemy brings forward such empiric qualities as salinity and inflammability -the latter associated to ‘oiliness’ and ‘sulphurousness’. These properties are not readily explained by the traditional composition of the elements such as: fire, water, earth and air, as al-óhazali and others after him were quick to note, influenced by critical thoughts such as Razi had.

[edit] Major works on alchemy

Razi’s achievements are of exceptional importance in the history of chemistry, since in his books we find for the first time a systematic classification of carefully observed and verified facts regarding chemical substances, reactions and apparatus, described in a language almost entirely free from mysticism and ambiguity. Razi’s scheme of classification of the substances used in chemistry shows sound research on his part.

  • The Secret (Al-Asrar)
This book was written in response to a request from Razi’s close friend, colleague, and former student, Abu Mohammed b. Yunis of Bukhara, a Muslim mathematician, philosopher, a highly reputable natural scientist. In his book Sirr al-Asrar, Razi divides the subject of “Matter’ into three categories as he did in his previous book al-Asrar.

  1. Knowledge and identification of drug components of plant-, animal- and mineral-origin and the description of the best type of each for utilization in treatment.
  2. Knowledge of equipment and tools of interest to and used by either alchemist or apothecary.
  3. Knowledge of seven alchemical procedures and techniques: sublimation and condensation of mercury, precipitation of sulfur and arsenic calcination of minerals (gold, silver, copper, lead, and iron), salts, glass, talc, shells, and waxing.
This last category contains additionally a description of other methods and applications used in transmutation: * The added mixture and use of solvent vehicles. * The amount of heat (fire) used, ‘bodies and stones’, (‘al-ajsad’ and ‘al-ahjar) that can or cannot be transmuted into corporal substances such of metals and Id salts (‘al-amlah’). * The use of a liquid mordant which quickly and permanently colors lesser metals for more lucrative sale and profit.
Similar to the commentary on the 8th century text on amalgams ascribed to Al- Hayan (Jabir), Razi gives methods and procedures of coloring a silver object to imitate gold (gold leafing) and the reverse technique of removing its color back to silver. Gilding and silvering of other metals (alum, calcium salts, iron, copper, and tutty) are also described, as well as how colors will last for years without tarnishing or changing. Behind these procedures one does not find a deceptive motive rather a technical and economic deliberation. This becomes evident from the author’s quotation of market prices and the expressed triumph of artisan, craftsman or alchemist declaring the results of their efforts “to make it look exactly like gold!”. However, another motive was involved, namely, to manufacture something resembling gold to be sold quickly so to help a good friend who happened to be in need of money fast. Could it be Razi’s alchemical technique of silvering and gilding metals which convinced many Muslim biographers that he was first a jeweler before he turned to the study of alchemy?
Of interest in the text is Razi’s classification of minerals into six divisions, showing his discussion a modern chemical connotation:
  1. Four spirits (AL-ARWAH) : mercury, sal ammoniac, sulfur, and arsenic sulphate (orpiment and realgar).
  2. Seven bodies (AL-AJSAD) : silver, gold, copper, iron, black lead (plumbago), zinc (Kharsind), and tin.
  3. Thirteen stones : (AL-AHJAR) Pyrites marcasite (marqashita), magnesia, malachite, tutty Zinc oxide (tutiya), talcum, lapis lazuli, gypsum, azurite, magnesia, haematite (iron oxide), arsenic oxide, mica and asbestos and glass (then identified as made of sand and alkali of which the transparent crystal Damascene[disambiguation needed] is considered the best),
  4. Seven vitriols (AL-ZAJAT) : alum (al-shabb الشب), and white (qalqadis القلقديس), black, red (suri السوري), and yellow (qulqutar القلقطار) vitriols (the impure sulfates of iron, copper, etc.), green (qalqand القلقند).
  5. Seven borates : natron, and impure sodium borate.
  6. Eleven salts (AL-AMLAH): including brine, common (table) salt, ashes, naphtha, live lime, and urine, rock, and sea salts. Then he separately defines and describes each of these substances and their top choice, best colors and various adulterations.
Razi gives also a list of apparatus used in alchemy. This consists of 2 classes:
  1. Instruments used for the dissolving and melting of metals such as the Blacksmith’s hearth, bellows, crucible, thongs (tongue or ladle), macerator, stirring rod, cutter, grinder (pestle), file, shears, descensory and semi-cylindrical iron mould.
  2. Utensils used to carry out the process of transmutation and various parts of the distilling apparatus: the retort, alembic, shallow iron pan, potters kiln and blowers, large oven, cylindrical stove, glass cups, flasks, phials, beakers, glass funnel, crucible, alundel, heating lamps, mortar, cauldron, hair-cloth, sand- and water-bath, sieve, flat stone mortar and chafing-dish.
  • Secret of Secrets (Sirr Al-asrar)
This is Razi’s most famous book which has gained a lot of recognition in the West. Here he gives systematic attention to basic chemical operations important to the history of pharmacy.

[edit] Books on alchemy

Here is a list of Razi’s known books on alchemy, mostly in Persian:

  • Modkhele Taalimi
  • Elaleh Ma’aaden
  • Isbaate Sanaa’at
  • Ketabeh Sang
  • Ketabe Tadbir
  • Ketabe Aksir
  • Ketabe Sharafe Sanaa’at
  • Ketabe Tartib, Ketabe Rahat, The Simple Book
  • Ketabe Tadabir
  • Ketabe Shavahed
  • Ketabe Azmayeshe Zar va Sim (Experimentation on Gold)
  • Ketabe Serre Hakimaan
  • Ketabe Serr (The Book of Secrets)
  • Ketabe Serre Serr (The Secret of Secrets)
  • The First Book on Experiments
  • The Second Book on Experiments
  • Resaale’ei Be Faan
  • Arezooyeh Arezookhah
  • A letter to Vazir Ghasem ben Abidellah
  • Ketabe Tabvib

[edit] Philosophy

[edit] On existence

Razi is known to have been a free-thinking philosopher, since he was well-trained in ancient Greek science and philosophy although his approach to chemistry was rather naturalistic. Moreover, he was well versed in the theory of music, as so many other scientists of that time.

[edit] Metaphysics

His ideas on metaphysics were also based on the works of the ancient Greeks:

“The metaphysical doctrine of Razi, insofar as it can be reconstructed, derives from his concept of the five eternal principles[disambiguation needed]. God, for him, does not ‘create’ the world from nothing but rather arranges a universe out of pre-existing principles. His account of the soul features a mythic origin of the world in which God out of pity fashions a physical playground for the soul in response to its own desires; the soul, once fallen into the new realm God has made for it, requires God’s further gift of intellect in order to find its way once more to salvation and freedom. In this scheme, intellect does not appear as a separate principle but is rather a later grace of God to the soul; the soul becomes intelligent, possessed of reason and therefore able to discern the relative value of the other four principles. Whereas the five principles are eternal, intellect as such is apparently not. Such a doctrine of intellect is sharply at odds with that of all of Razi’s philosophical contemporaries, who are in general either adherents of some form of Neoplatonism or of Aristotelianism. The remaining three principles, space, matter and time, serve as the non-animate components of the natural world. Space is defined by the relationship between the individual particles of matter, or atoms, and the void that surrounds them. The greater the density of material atoms, the heavier and more solid the resulting object; conversely, the larger the portion of void, the lighter and less solid. Time and matter have both an absolute, unqualified form and a limited form. Thus there is an absolute matter – pure extent – that does not depend in any way on place, just as there is a time, in this sense, that is not defined or limited by motion. The absolute time of al-Razi is, like matter, infinite; it thus transcends the time which Aristotle confined to the measurement of motion. Razi, in the cases of both time and matter, knew well how he differed from Aristotle and also fully accepted and intended the consequences inherent in his anti-Peripatetic positions.” (Paul E. Walker)[page needed]

[edit] Excerpt from The Philosophical Approach

“(…) In short, while I am writing the present book, I have written so far around 200 books and articles on different aspects of science, philosophy, theology, and hekmat (wisdom). (…) I never entered the service of any king as a military man or a man of office, and if I ever did have a conversation with a king, it never went beyond my medical responsibility and advice. (…) Those who have seen me know, that I did not into excess with eating, drinking or acting the wrong way. As to my interest in science, people know perfectly well and must have witnessed how I have devoted all my life to science since my youth. My patience and diligence in the pursuit of science has been such that on one special issue specifically I have written 20,000 pages (in small print), moreover I spent fifteen years of my life -night and day- writing the big collection entitled Al Hawi. It was during this time that I lost my eyesight, my hand became paralyzed, with the result that I am now deprived of reading and writing. Nonetheless, I’ve never given up, but kept on reading and writing with the help of others. I could make concessions with my opponents and admit some shortcomings, but I am most curious what they have to say about my scientific achievement. If they consider my approach incorrect, they could present their views and state their points clearly, so that I may study them, and if I determined their views to be right, I would admit it. However, if I disagreed, I would discuss the matter to prove my standpoint. If this is not the case, and they merely disagree with my approach and way of life, I would appreciate they only use my written knowledge and stop interfering with my behaviour.”
“In the “Philosophical Biography“, as seen above, he defended his personal and philosophical life style. In this work he laid out a framework based on the idea that there is life after death full of happiness, not suffering. Rather than being self-indulgent, man should pursue knowledge, utilise his intellect and apply justice in his life. According to Al-Razi: “This is what our merciful Creator wants. The One to whom we pray for reward and whose punishment we fear.” In brief, man should be kind, gentle and just. Al-Razi believed that there is a close relationship between spiritual integrity and physical health. He did not implicate that the soul could avoid distress due to his fear of death. He simply states that this psychological state cannot be avoided completely unless the individual is convinced that, after death, the soul will lead a better life. This requires a thorough study of esoteric doctrines and/or religions. He focuses on the opinion of some people who think that the soul perishes when the body dies. Death is inevitable, therefore one should not pre-occupy the mind with it, because any person who continuously thinks about death will become distressed and think as if he is dying when he continuously ponders on that subject. Therefore, he should forget about it in order to avoid upsetting himself. When contemplating his destiny after death, a benevolent and good man who acts according to the ordinances of the Islamic Shari`ah, has after all nothing to fear because it indicates that he will have comfort and permanent bliss in the Hereafter. The one who doubts the Shari`ah, may contemplate it, and if he diligently does this, he will not deviate from the right path. If he falls short, Allah will excuse him and forgive his sins because it is not demanded of him to do something which he cannot achieve.” (Dr. Muhammad Abdul-Hadi Abu Reidah)

[edit] Books on philosophy

This is a partial list of Razi’s books on philosophy. Some books may have been copied or published under different titles.

  • The Small Book on Theism
  • Response to Abu’al’Qasem Braw
  • The Greater Book on Theism
  • Modern Philosophy
  • Dar Roshan Sakhtane Eshtebaah
  • Dar Enteghaade Mo’tazlian
  • Delsoozi Bar Motekaleman
  • Meydaneh Kherad
  • Khasel
  • Resaaleyeh Rahnamayeh Fehrest
  • Ghasideyeh Ilaahi
  • Dar Alet Afarineshe Darandegan
  • Shakkook
  • Naghseh Ketabe Tadbir
  • Naghsnamehyeh Ferforius
  • Do name be Hasanebne Moharebe Ghomi

Notable books in English:

  • Spiritual Medicine
  • The Philosophical Approach (Al Syrat al Falsafiah)
  • The Metaphysics

[edit] On Religion

A number of contradictory works and statements about religion have been ascribed to Razi. According to al-Biruni‘s Bibliography of Razi (Risāla fī Fihrist Kutub al-Rāzī), Razi wrote two “heretical books”: “Fī al-Nubuwwāt (On Prophecies) and “Fī Ḥiyal al-Mutanabbīn (On the Tricks of False Prophets). According to Biruni, the first “was claimed to be against religions” and the second “was claimed as attacking the necessity of the prophets.”[20] In his Risala, Biruni further criticized and expressed caution about Razi’s religious views, noting an influence of Manichaeism. However, Biruni also listed some other works of Razi on religion, including Fi Wujub Da‘wat al-Nabi ‘Ala Man Nakara bi al-Nubuwwat (Obligation to Propagate the Teachings of the Prophet Against Those who Denied Prophecies) and Fi anna li al-Insan Khaliqan Mutqinan Hakiman (That Man has a Wise and Perfect Creator), among others, listed under his works on the “divine sciences”.[20] None of these works are now extant.

Other views and quotes that are often ascribed to Razi are found in a book written by Abu Hatim al-Razi, called Aʿlām al-nubuwwa, and not in any extant work of Razi. Abu Hatim was an Isma’ili missionary who debated Razi, but whether he has faithfully recorded the views of Razi is disputed. According to Abdul Latif al-‘Abd, Islamic philosophy professor at Cairo University, Abu Hatim and his student, Ḥamīd al-dīn Karmānī (d. 411AH), were Isma’ili extremists who often misrepresented the views of Razi in their works.[21] This view is also corroborated by early historians like al-Shahrastani who noted “that such accusations should be doubted since they were made by Ismāʿīlīs, who had been severely attacked by Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyā Rāzī”.[22] Al-‘Abd also points out that the views allegedly expressed by Razi contradict what is found in Razi’s own works, like the Spiritual Medicine (Fī al-ṭibb al-rūḥānī). Al-‘Abd considers the content of the Spiritual Medicine to be a refutation to the claims made by Abu Hatim about Razi’s religious views.[21]

According to Abu Hatim, Razi offered harsh criticism concerning religions, in particular those religions that claim to have been revealed by prophetic experiences.[23][24][25] Razi asserted that “[God] should not set some individuals over others, and there should be between them neither rivalry nor disagreement which would bring them to perdition.”[26] He argued,

On what ground do you deem it necessary that God should single out certain individuals [by giving them prophecy], that he should set them up above other people, that he should appoint them to be the people’s guides, and make people dependent upon them?[26]

Concerning the link between violence and religion, Razi expressed that God must have known, considering the many disagreements between different religions, that “there would be a universal disaster and they would perish in the mutual hostilities and fighting. Indeed, many people have perished in this way, as we can see.”[26]

He was also critical of the lack of interest among religious adherents in the rational analysis of their beliefs, and the violent reaction which takes its place:

If the people of this religion are asked about the proof for the soundness of their religion, they flare up, get angry and spill the blood of whoever confronts them with this question. They forbid rational speculation, and strive to kill their adversaries. This is why truth became thoroughly silenced and concealed.[26]

Al-Razi believed that common people had originally been duped into belief by religious authority figures and by the status quo. He believed that these authority figures were able to continually deceive the common people “as a result of [religious people] being long accustomed to their religious denomination, as days passed and it became a habit. Because they were deluded by the beards of the goats, who sit in ranks in their councils, straining their throats in recounting lies, senseless myths and “so-and-so told us in the name of so-and-so…”[26]

He believed that the existence of a large variety of religions was, in itself, evidence that they were all man made, saying, “Jesus claimed that he is the son of God, while Moses claimed that He had no son, and Muhammad claimed that he [Jesus] was created like the rest of humanity.”[26] and “Mani and Zoroaster contradicted Moses, Jesus and Muhammad regarding the Eternal One, the coming into being of the world, and the reasons for the [existence] of good and evil.”[26] In relation to the Hebrew’s God asking of sacrifices, he said that “This sounds like the words of the needy rather than of the Laudable Self-sufficient One.”[26]

On the Qur’an, Razi said:

You claim that the evidentiary miracle is present and available, namely, the Koran. You say: “Whoever denies it, let him produce a similar one.” Indeed, we shall produce a thousand similar, from the works of rhetoricians, eloquent speakers and valiant poets, which are more appropriately phrased and state the issues more succinctly. They convey the meaning better and their rhymed prose is in better meter. … By God what you say astonishes us! You are talking about a work which recounts ancient myths, and which at the same time is full of contradictions and does not contain any useful information or explanation. Then you say: “Produce something like it”‽[26]

The above is a translation of a quote from Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi’s now lost treatise, Mahariq al anbiya مخارق الانبياء (The Prophets’ Fraudulent Tricks), in Abu Hatim al-Razi’s refutation, A’lam al-Nubuwwah (Signs of Prophecy).[27] Another, longer, translation of the same passage is also available.[28]

From the beginning of the human history, all of those who claimed to be prophets were, in his worst assumption, tortuous and devious and with his best assumption had psychological problems.[23][24][25]

[edit] Criticism

Al-Razi’s religious and philosophical views were later criticized by Persian Islamic philosophers such as Abu Rayhan Biruni and Avicenna in the early 11th century. Biruni in particular wrote a short Risala treatise dealing with al-Razi, criticizing him for his sympathy with Manichaeism,[29] his Hermetical writings, his religious and philosophical views,[30] for refusing to mathematize physics, and his active opposition to mathematics.[31] Avicenna, who was himself a physician and philosopher, also criticized al-Razi.[32] During a debate with Biruni, Avicenna stated:

Or from Muhammad ibn Zakariyyab al-Razi, who meddles in metaphysics and exceeds his competence. He should have remained confined to surgery and to urine and stool testing—indeed he exposed himself and showed his ignorance in these matters.[33]

[edit] Quotes about Razi

“Rhazes was the greatest physician of Islam and the Medieval Ages.”– George Sarton[page needed]
“Rhazes remained up to the 17th century the indisputable authority of medicine.”– The Encyclopaedia of Islam[page needed]
“His writings on smallpox and measles show originality and accuracy, and his essay on infectious diseases was the first scientific treatise on the subject.” – The Bulletin of the World Health Organization (May 1970)
“In today’s world we tend to see scientific advance as the product of great movements, massive grant-funded projects, and larger-than-life socio-economic forces. It is easy to forget, therefore, that many contributions stemmed from the individual efforts of scholars like Rhazes. Indeed, pharmacy can trace much of its historical foundations to the singular achievements of this ninth-century Persian scholar.” — Michael E. Flannery[page needed]

[edit] Legacy

The modern-day Razi Institute in Tehran, and Razi University in Kermanshah were named after him, and ‘Razi Day’ (‘Pharmacy Day’) is commemorated in Iran every August 27.[34][35]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Robinson, Victor (1944), The story of medicine, New York: New Home Library 
  2. ^ Porter, Dorothy (2005), Health, civilization, and the state: a history of public health from ancient to modern times, New York: Routledge (published 1999), p. 25, ISBN 0-415-20036-9 
  3. ^ History of civilizations of Central Asia, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 81-208-1596-3, vol. IV, part two, p. 228.
  4. ^ A J, Arberry (1950 (translation)). Rhazes, The Spiritual Physick of Rhazes. London: John Murray. 
  5. ^ “Rhazes: His career and his writings”, Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases 12 (3): 266–272 
  6. ^ Browne (2001, p. 44)
  7. ^ Hakeem Abdul Hameed, Exchanges between India and Central Asia in the field of Medicine
  8. ^ a b David W. Tschanz, PhD (2003), “Arab(?) Roots of European Medicine”, Heart Views 4 (2).
  9. ^ Richter-Bernburg
  10. ^ Boyce, Mary; Frantz, Grenet (1982). History of Zoroastrianism: Under The Achaemenians. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-06506-7.  p. 8. See also ( Gnoli, Gerardo. “Avestan geography”. Encyclopaedia Iranica 3. ISBN 0-7100-9121-4.  excerpt: “the question of the identification of Avestan Raya with the Raga in the inscription of Darius I at Bīsotūn […] with Ray[…] has by no means been settled.”)
  11. ^ Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar- Razi Biography (c. 850-c. 932). Free Health Encyclopedia, 2006
  12. ^ Long, George (1841). The Penny cyclopædia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Volume 19. C. Knight. p. 445. 
  13. ^ Seff, Philip (1996). Petrified lightning and more amazing stories from “Our fascinating earth”. Chicago, Ill: Contemporary Books. p. 132. ISBN 0-8092-3250-2
  14. ^ “Saab Medical Library – كتاب في الجدري و الحصبة – American University of Beirut”. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  15. ^ Gunton, Simon edited and augmented by Patrick, Simon. The History of the Church of Peterborough. published by Richard Chiswell, London (1686). Facsimile edition pub. Clay, Tyas, Watkins and Clay, Peterborough and Stamford (1990). Item Fv. on pp. 187-8.
  16. ^ Islamic Science, the Scholar and Ethics, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  17. ^ Emilie Savage-Smith (1996), “Medicine”, in Roshdi Rashed, ed., Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 3, p. 903-962 [917]. Routledge, London and New York.
  18. ^ A Treatise on the Small-pox and Measles, Translated by William Alexander Greenhill, Published by Printed for the Sydenham Society [by C and J. Adlrd], 1848, pp. 252, URL
  19. ^ M. Th. Houtsma, ed. (1993). E. J. Brill’s First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, Volume 4. Brill. p. 1101. ISBN 90-04-09790-2
  20. ^ a b Deuraseh, Nurdeng (2008). “Risalat Al-Biruni Fi Fihrist Kutub Al-Razi: A Comprehensive Bibliography of the Works of Abu Bakr Al-Rāzī (d. 313 A.h/925) and Al-Birūni (d. 443/1051)”. Journal of Aqidah and Islamic Thought 9: 51–100. 
  21. ^ a b Abdul Latif Muhammad al-Abd (1978). Al-ṭibb al-rūḥānī li Abū Bakr al-Rāzī. Cairo: Maktabat al-Nahḍa al-Miṣriyya. pp. 4, 13, 18. 
  22. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, and Mehdi Amin Razavi, An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, vol. 1, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 353, quote: “Among the other eminent figures who attacked Rāzī are the Ismāʿīlī philosopher Abū Ḥatem Rāzī, who wrote two books to refute Rāzī’s views on theodicy, prophecy, and miracles; and Nāṣir-i Khusraw. Shahrastānī, however, indicates that such accusations should be doubted since they were made by Ismāʿīlīs, who had been severely attacked by Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyā Rāzī”
  23. ^ a b Sarah Stroumsa (1999). Freethinkers of Medieval Islam: Ibn Al-Rawandi, Abu Bakr Al-Razi and Their Impact on Islamic Thought. Brill. 
  24. ^ a b Kraus, P & Pines, S (1913-1938). “Al-Razi”. Encyclopedia of Islam. p. 1136. 
  25. ^ a b Amira Nowaira (10 May 2010). “When Islamic atheism thrived”. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i Jennifer Michael Hecht, “Doubt: A History: The Great Doubters and Their Legacy of Innovation from Socrates and Jesus to Thomas Jefferson and Emily Dickinson”, pg. 227-230
  27. ^ Sarah Stroumsa (1999). Freethinkers of Medieval Islam: Ibn Al-Rawandi, Abu Bakr Al-Razi and Their Impact on Islamic Thought. Brill. pp. 103–104.  Google books preview:
  28. ^ Paul E. Walker (1992). “The Political Implications of Al-Razi’s Philosophy”. In Charles E. Butterworth ed. The Political aspects of Islamic philosophy: essays in honor of Muhsin S. Mahdi. Harvard University Press. pp. 87–89.  Google books preview:
  29. ^ William Montgomery Watt (2004-04-14). “BĪRŪNĪ and the study of non-Islamic Religions”. Retrieved 2008-01-25. 
  30. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr (1993), An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines, p. 166. State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-1516-3.
  31. ^ Shlomo Pines (1986), Studies in Arabic versions of Greek texts and in mediaeval science 2, Brill Publishers, p. 340, ISBN 965-223-626-8 
  32. ^ Shlomo Pines (1986), Studies in Arabic versions of Greek texts and in mediaeval science 2, Brill Publishers, p. 362, ISBN 965-223-626-8 
  33. ^ Rafik Berjak and Muzaffar Iqbal, “Ibn Sina—Al-Biruni correspondence”, Islam & Science, December 2003.
  34. ^ Razi Vaccine & Serum Research Institute.
  35. ^, Razi commemoration day

[edit] References


[edit] Further reading

[edit] Primary literature

[edit] By al-Razi

  • Arberry, A.J. (1950). “The Spiritual Physick of Rhazes”. The Wisdom of the East Series. The Liberty Fund. 
  • See C. Brockelmann for the manuscript of Razi’s extant books in general, see Brockelmann, GAL, I, pp. 268–71 (second edition), Suppl., Vol. I, pp. 418–21.
  • Paul Kraus, Abi Bakr Mohammadi Filii Zachariae Raghensis: Opera Philosophica, fragmentaque quae superssunt. Pars Prior. Cairo 1939. Note: this is the only edition of Al-Razi’s philosophical books and fragments still extant. Only the first volume was published since Kraus’s suicide prevented the publication of the second volume for which he already had gathered a great amount of material. This material was transferred, after his death, to the Institut Francais d’Archeologie Orientale, in Cairo; it still remains to be published.[citation needed]

[edit] By others

  • Ibn Al-Nadim, Fihrist, (ed. Flugel), pp. 299 et sqq.
  • Sa’id al-Andalusi, Tabaqat al-Umam, p. 33
  • Ibn Juljul, Tabaqat al-Atibba w-al-Hukama, (ed. Fu’ad Sayyid), Cairo, 1355/1936, pp. 77–78
  • J. Ruska, Al-Biruni als Quelle fur das Leben und die Schriften al-Razi’s, Isis, Vol. V, 1924, pp. 26–50.
  • Al-Biruni, Epitre de Beruni, contenant le repertoire des ouvres de Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Razi, publiee par P. Kraus, Paris, 1936
  • Al-Baihaqi, Tatimmah Siwan al-Hikma, (ed. M. Ghafi), Lahore, 1351/1932
  • Al-Qifti,Tarikh al-Hukama, (ed. Lippert), pp. 27–177
  • Ibn Abi Usaibi’ah,Uyun al-Anba fi Tabaqat al-Atibba, Vol. I, pp. 309–21
  • Abu Al-Faraj ibn al-‘Ibri (Bar-Hebraeus),Mukhtasar Tarikh al-Duwal, (ed. A. Salhani), p. 291
  • Ibn Khallikan, Wafayat al-A’yan, (ed. Muhyi al-Din ‘Abd al-Hamid), Cairo, 1948, No. 678, pp. 244–47
  • Al-Safadi, Nakt al-Himyan, pp. 249–50
  • Ibn Al-‘Imad, Shadharat al-Dhahab, Vol. II, p. 263
  • Al-‘Umari, Masalik al-Absar, Vol. V, Part 2, ff. 301-03 (photostat copy in Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyyah).

[edit] Secondary literature

  • G. S. A. Ranking, The Life and Works of Rhazes, in Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Congress of Medicine, London, 1913, pp. 237–68.
  • Al-Razi als Bahnbrecher einer neuer Chemie, Deutsche Literaturzeitung, 1923, pp. 118–24.
  • Die Alchemie al-Razi’s der Islam, Vol. XXII,pp. 283–319.
  • Uber den gegenwartigen Stand der Razi-Forschung, Archivio di stori della scienza, 1924, Vol. V, pp. 335–47
  • H. H. Shader, ZDMG, 79, pp. 228–35 (see translation into Arabic by Abdurrahman Badawi in al-Insan al-Kamil,Islamica, Vol. XI, Cairo, 1950, pp. 37–44).
  • E. O. von Lippmann, Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie, Vol. II, p. 181.
  • S. Pines, Die Atomenlehre ar-Razi’s in Beitrage zur islamischen Atomenlehre, Berlin, 1936, pp. 34–93.
  • Dr. Mahmud al-Najmabadi, Shah Hal Muhammad ibn Zakariya, (1318/1900)
  • Gamil Bek, Uqud al-Jauliar, Vol. I, pp. 118–27.
  • Izmirli Haqqi, Ilahiyat, Fak. Macm., Vol. I, p. 151; Vol. II, p. 36, Vol. III, pp. 177 et seq.
  • Abdurrahman Badawi, Min Tarlkh al-Ilhad fi al-Islam Islamica, Vol. II, Cairo, 1945, pp. 198–228.
  • Hirschberg,Geschichte der Augenheilkunde, p. 101.
  • E. G.Browne, Arabian Medicine, Cambridge, 1921, pp. 44–53.
  • M. Meyerhof, Legacy of Islam, pp. 323 et seq.
  • F. Wüstenfeld, Geschichte der Arabischen Arzte und Naturforscher, ftn. 98.
  • L. Leelerc, Histoire de la medicine arabe, Paris, 1876, Vol. I, pp. 337–54.
  • H. P. J. Renaud, A propos du millenaire de Razes, in bulletin de la Societe Irancaise d’Histoire de la medicine, Mars-avril, 1931, pp. 203 et seq.
  • A. Eisen, Kimiya al-Razi, RAAD, DIB, 62/4.
  • Aldo Mieli, La science arabe, Leiden, 1938, pp. 8, 16.
  • Nasr, Science and Civilization in Islam, see. Razes: The Secret of Secrets, p. 273, also pp. 197–200, and Anawati: L’Alchemie arabe in Rased.
  • Browne, Edward Granville (2001). Islamic Medicine. Goodword Books Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-87570-19-9
  • M. M. Sharif, A History of Muslim Philosophy
  • Walker, P. “The Political Implications of al-Razi’s Philosophy”, in C. Butterworth (ed.) The Political Aspects of Islamic Philosophy, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 61-94.(1992)
  • Motazed, K. Mohammad Zakaria Razi

[edit] Encyclopedia

[edit] External links




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Posted: April 7, 2013 by noxprognatus in Texts

Jābir ibn Hayyān

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For other people known as Geber, see Geber.
Jābir ibn Hayyān
Jabir ibn Hayyan.jpg 15th-century European portrait of “Geber”, Codici Ashburnhamiani 1166, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence
Title Abu Musa Jābir ibn Hayyān
Born 722 AD Tus, Persia
Died c. 804 AD
Ethnicity Arab[1][2] or Persian[3]
Era Islamic Golden Age
Creed Shia[4][5]
Main interest(s) Alchemy and Chemistry, Astronomy, Astrology, Medicine and Pharmacy, Philosophy, Physics, philanthropist
Notable work(s) Kitab al-Kimya, Kitab al-Sab’een, Book of the Kingdom, Book of the Balances , Book of Eastern Mercury, etc.

Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (al-Barigi / al-Azdi / al-Kufi / al-Tusi / al-Sufi), often known simply as Geber, (Arabic: جابر بن حیان‎) (Persian: جابرحیان) (c.721–c.815)[6] was a prominent polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician. Born and educated in Tus, he later traveled to Kufa. Jābir is held to have been the first practical alchemist.[7]

As early as the 10th century, the identity and exact corpus of works of Jābir was in dispute in Islamic circles.[8] His name was Latinized as “Geber” in the Christian West and in 13th century Europe an anonymous writer, usually referred to as Pseudo-Geber, produced alchemical and metallurgical writings under the pen-name Geber.



[edit] Biography

[edit] Early references

In 988 Ibn al-Nadim compiled the Kitab al-Fihrist which mentions Jabir as a spiritual follower and as a companion to Jafar as-Sadiq (he is not listed among the students of Jafar as-Sadiq but many of the writings of the Jabirian corpus are dedicated to Jafar as-Sadiq). In another reference al-Nadim reports that a group of philosophers claimed Jabir was one of their own members. Another group, reported by al-Nadim, says only The Large Book of Mercy is genuine and that the rest are pseudographical. Their assertions are rejected by al-Nadim.[9] Joining al-Nadim in asserting a real Jabir; Ibn-Wahshiyya (“ibrahim alkindi …book on poison is a great work..”) Rejecting a real Jabir; (the philosopher c.970) Abu Sulayman al-Mantiqi claims the real author is one al-Hasan ibn al-Nakad al-Mawili. 14th century critic of Arabic literature, Jamal al-Din ibn Nubata al-Misri declares all the writings attributed to Jabir doubtful.[10]

[edit] Life and background

Ibrahim was an Omani Natural Philosopher who lived mostly in the 8th century; he was born in Tus, Khorasan, in Iran (Persia),[6] then ruled by the Umayyad Caliphate. Jabir in the classical sources has been entitled differently as al-Azdi al-Barigi or al-Kufi or al-Tusi or al-Sufi.[11] There is a difference of opinion[12] as to whether he was an Arab from Kufa who lived in Khurasan or a Persian from Khorasan who later went to Kufa or whether he was, as some have suggested, of Syrian origin and later lived in Persia and Iraq.[13] His ethnic background is not clear,[11] and sources reference him as an Arab or a Persian.[3] In some sources, he is reported to have been the son of Hayyan al-Azdi, a pharmacist of the Arabian Azd tribe who emigrated from Yemen to Kufa (in present-day Iraq) during the Umayyad Caliphate.[14][15] while Henry Corbin believes Geber seems to have been a client of the ‘Azd tribe.[16] Jābir became an alchemist at the court of Caliph Harun al-Rashid, for whom he wrote the Kitab al-Zuhra (“The Book of Venus”, on “the noble art of alchemy”).[citation needed] Hayyan had supported the Abbasid revolt against the Umayyads, and was sent by them to the province of Khorasan (present day Afghanistan and Iran) to gather support for their cause. He was eventually caught by the Umayyads and executed. His family fled to Yemen,[14][17] where Jābir grew up and studied the Quran, mathematics and other subjects.[14] Jābir’s father’s profession may have contributed greatly to his interest in alchemy.

After the Abbasids took power, Jābir went back to Kufa. He began his career practicing medicine, under the patronage of a Vizir (from the noble Persian family Barmakids) of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. His connections to the Barmakid cost him dearly in the end. When that family fell from grace in 803, Jābir was placed under house arrest in Kufa, where he remained until his death.

It has been asserted that Jābir was a student of the sixth Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq and Harbi al-Himyari,[5][8] however other scholars have questioned this theory.[18]

[edit] The Jabirian corpus

An illustration of the various experiments and instruments used by Jabir Ibn Hayyan.

In total, nearly 3,000 treatises and articles are credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan.[19] Following the pioneering work of Paul Kraus, who demonstrated that a corpus of some several hundred works ascribed to Jābir were probably a medley from different hands,[10][20] mostly dating to the late 9th and early 10th centuries, many scholars believe that many of these works consist of commentaries and additions by his followers,[citation needed] particularly of an Ismaili persuasion.[21]

The scope of the corpus is vast: cosmology, music, medicine, magic, biology, chemical technology, geometry, grammar, metaphysics, logic, artificial generation of living beings, along with astrological predictions, and symbolic Imâmî myths.[10]

  • The 112 Books dedicated to the Barmakids, viziers of Caliph Harun al-Rashid. This group includes the Arabic version of the Emerald Tablet, an ancient work that proved a recurring foundation of and source for alchemical operations. In the Middle Ages it was translated into Latin (Tabula Smaragdina) and widely diffused among European alchemists.
  • The Seventy Books, most of which were translated into Latin during the Middle Ages. This group includes the Kitab al-Zuhra (“Book of Venus”) and the Kitab Al-Ahjar (“Book of Stones”).
  • The Ten Books on Rectification, containing descriptions of alchemists such as Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
  • The Books on Balance; this group includes his most famous ‘Theory of the balance in Nature’.

Jābir states in his Book of Stones (4:12) that “The purpose is to baffle and lead into error everyone except those whom God loves and provides for”. His works seem to have been deliberately written in highly esoteric code (see steganography), so that only those who had been initiated into his alchemical school could understand them. It is therefore difficult at best for the modern reader to discern which aspects of Jābir’s work are to be read as symbols (and what those symbols mean), and what is to be taken literally. Because his works rarely made overt sense, the term gibberish is believed to have originally referred to his writings (Hauck, p. 19).

[edit] People

Jābir’s interest in alchemy was probably inspired by his teacher Ja’far as-Sadiq. When he used to talk about alchemy, he would say “my master Ja’far as-Sadiq taught me about calcium, evaporation, distillation and crystallization and everything I learned in alchemy was from my master Ja’far as-Sadiq.” Imam Jafar was famed for his depth and breadth of knowledge. In addition to his knowledge of Islamic sciences, Imam Jafar was well educated in natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy, astronomy, anatomy, chemistry (alchemy), and other subjects. The foremost Islamic alchemist Jabir bin Hayyan was his most prominent student. Other famous students of his were Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik Ibn Anas, the founders of two Sunni schools of jurisprudence, and Wasil ibn Ata, the founder of the Mutazilite school of Islamic thought. Imam Jafar was known for his liberal views on learning, and was keen to debate with scholars of different faiths and of different beliefs. Imam Abu Hanifa is quoted by many souces as having said “My knowledge extends to only two years. The two I spent with Imam Jafar Sadiq”, some Islamic scholars have gone so far as to call Imam Jafar Saddiq as the root of most of Islamic jurisprudence, having a massive influence on Hanafi, Maliki and Shia schools of thought extending well into mainstream Hanbali and Shafi’i thought. Imam Jafar also attained a surpassing knowledge in astronomy and in the science of medicine. it is said that he wrote more than five hundred books on health care which were compiled and annotated by another great scholar and scientist of Islam, Jabir bin Hayyan

Jābir professes to draw his inspiration from earlier writers, legendary and historic, on the subject.[22] In his writings, Jābir pays tribute to Egyptian and Greek alchemists Zosimos, Democritus, Hermes Trismegistus, Agathodaimon, but also Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Pythagoras, and Socrates as well as the commentators Alexander of Aphrodisias Simplicius, Porphyry and others.[10] A huge pseudo-epigraphic literature of alchemical books was composed in Arabic, among which the names of Persian authors also appear like Jāmāsb, Ostanes, Mani, testifying that alchemy-like operations on metals and other substances were also practiced in Persia. The great number of Persian technical names (zaybaq = mercury, nošāder = sal-ammoniac) also corroborates the idea of an important Iranian root of medieval alchemy.[23] Ibn al-Nadim reports a dialogue between Aristotle and Ostanes, the Persian alchemist of Achaemenid era, which is in Jabirian corpus under the title of Kitab Musahhaha Aristutalis.[24] Ruska had suggested that the Sasanian medical schools played an important role in the spread of interest in alchemy.[23] He emphasizes the long history of alchemy, “whose origin is Arius … the first man who applied the first experiment on the [philosopher’s] stone… and he declares that man possesses the ability to imitate the workings of Nature” (Nasr, Seyyed Hussein, Science and Civilization of Islam).

[edit] Theories

Jābir’s alchemical investigations ostensibly revolved around the ultimate goal of takwin — the artificial creation of life. The Book of Stones includes several recipes for creating creatures such as scorpions, snakes, and even humans in a laboratory environment, which are subject to the control of their creator. What Jābir meant by these recipes is unknown.

Jābir’s alchemical investigations were theoretically grounded in an elaborate numerology related to Pythagorean and Neoplatonic systems. The nature and properties of elements was defined through numeric values assigned the Arabic consonants present in their name, ultimately culminating in the number 17.

By Jabirs’ time Aristotelian physics, had become Neoplatonic. Each Aristotelian element was composed of these qualities: fire was both hot and dry, earth, cold and dry, water cold and moist, and air, hot and moist. This came from the elementary qualities which are theoretical in nature plus substance. In metals two of these qualities were interior and two were exterior. For example, lead was cold and dry and gold was hot and moist. Thus, Jābir theorized, by rearranging the qualities of one metal, a different metal would result. Like Zosimos, Jabir believed this would require a catalyst, an al-iksir, the elusive elixir that would make this transformation possible — which in European alchemy became known as the philosopher’s stone.[10]

According to Jabir’s mercury-sulfur theory, metals differ from each in so far as they contain different proportions of the sulfur and mercury. These are not the elements that we know by those names, but certain principles to which those elements are the closest approximation in nature.[25] Based on Aristotle’s “exhalation” theory the dry and moist exhalations become sulfur and mercury (sometimes called “sophic” or “philosophic” mercury and sulfur). The sulfur-mercury theory is first recorded in a 7th century work Secret of Creation credited (falsely) to Balinus (Apollonius of Tyana). This view becomes wide spread.[26] In the Book of Explanation Jabir says

the metals are all, in essence, composed of mercury combined and coagulated with sulphur [that has risen to it in earthy, smoke-like vapors]. They differ from one another only because of the difference of their accidental qualities, and this difference is due to the difference of their sulphur, which again is caused by a variation in the soils and in their positions with respect to the heat of the sun

Holmyard says that Jabir proves by experiment that these are not ordinary sulfur and mercury.[14]

The seeds of the modern classification of elements into metals and non-metals could be seen in his chemical nomenclature. He proposed three categories:[27]

The origins of the idea of chemical equivalents might be traced back to Jabir, in whose time it was recognized that “a certain quantity of acid is necessary in order to neutralize a given amount of base.”[28][verification needed] Jābir also made important contributions to medicine, astronomy/astrology, and other sciences. Only a few of his books have been edited and published, and fewer still are available in translation.

[edit] Laboratory equipment and material

Ambix, cucurbit and retort of Zosimus, from Marcelin Berthelot, Collection of ancient greek alchemists (3 vol., Paris, 1887–1888).

Jabirian corpus is renowned for its contributions to alchemy. It shows a clear recognition of the importance of experimentation, “The first essential in chemistry is that thou shouldest perform practical work and conduct experiments, for he who performs not practical work nor makes experiments will never attain to the least degree of mastery.”[29] He is credited with the use of over twenty types of now-basic chemical laboratory equipment,[30] such as the alembic[31] and retort, and with the description of many now-commonplace chemical processes – such as crystallisation, various forms of alchemical “distillation”, and substances citric acid (the sour component of lemons and other unripe fruits), acetic acid (from vinegar) and tartaric acid (from wine-making residues), arsenic, antimony and bismuth, sulfur, and mercury[29][30] that have become the foundation of today’s chemistry.[32]

The works in Latin under the name of Geber include these important chemical processes (Von Meyer, 1906): The manufacture of nitric and sulfuric acids; The separation of gold from other metals through the agency of lead and saltpeter (potassium nitrate). The concept of a chemical compound; the mineral cinnabar, for example, as being composed of sulfur and mercury The purification of mercury. The classification of salts as water soluble, under the generic title “sal.” The introduction of the word “alkali” to designate substances such as lye and other bases. The production of nitric acid by distilling a mixture of saltpeter (potassium nitrate), copper vitriol (copper sulfate), and alum (naturally occurring sulfate of iron, potassium, sodium or aluminum). The production of sulfuric acid through the heating of alum . The production of aqua regia, a solvent capable of dissolving gold, by mixing salmiac (ammonium chloride) and nitric acid. The production of alum from alum shale by recrystallizing it from water. The purification of substances through crystallization The precipitation of silver nitrate crystals from a solution by the addition of common salt, thus establishing a test for the presence of both silver and salt. The preparation of mercuric oxide from mercury by heating it with a metallic oxide, and mercuric chloride by heating mercury with common salt, alum and saltpeter. The preparation of arsenious acid. The dissolving of sulfur in solutions of alkalies, and its transformation when it interacts with aqua regia. The theory that the different metals are composed of varying degrees of sulfur and mercury. The production of saltpeter by mixing potash (potassium carbonate) and nitric acid. [33]

According to Ismail al-Faruqi and Lois Lamya al-Faruqi, “In response to Jafar al-Sadik‘s wishes, [Jabir ibn Hayyan] invented a kind of paper that resisted fire, and an ink that could be read at night[disambiguation needed]. He invented an additive which, when applied to an iron surface, inhibited rust and when applied to a textile, would make it water repellent.”[34]

[edit] Alcohol and the mineral acids

According to Forbes “no proof was ever found that the Arabs knew alcohol or any mineral acid in a period before they were discovered in Italy, whatever the opinion of some modern authors may be on this point.”[35] However this claim is due to Forbes (and others) lack of knowledge of Arabic texts, and a number of instances of distillation of wine have been found by Ahmad Y. Al-Hassan.[36] Fractional distillation of alcohol first occurs about 1100 probably in Salerno. Magister Salernus (died 1167) provides one of the earliest direct recipes.[35] Directions to make sulfuric acid, nitric acid and aqua regis appear in Liber Fornacum, De inventione perfectionis, and the Summa.[35]

[edit] Legacy

An artistic depiction of “Geber”

Whether there was a real Jabir in the 8th century or not, his name would become the most famous in alchemy.[18] He paved the way for most of the later alchemists, including al-Kindi, al-Razi, al-Tughrai and al-Iraqi[disambiguation needed], who lived in the 9th–13th centuries. His books strongly influenced the medieval European alchemists[32] and justified their search for the philosopher’s stone.[37][38] In the Middle Ages, Jabir’s treatises on alchemy were translated into Latin and became standard texts for European alchemists. These include the Kitab al-Kimya (titled Book of the Composition of Alchemy in Europe), translated by Robert of Chester (1144); and the Kitab al-Sab’een (Book of Seventy) by Gerard of Cremona (before 1187). Marcelin Berthelot translated some of his books under the fanciful titles Book of the Kingdom, Book of the Balances, and Book of Eastern Mercury. Several technical Arabic terms introduced by Jabir, such as alkali, have found their way into various European languages and have become part of scientific vocabulary.

Max Meyerhoff states the following on Jabir ibn Hayyan: “His influence may be traced throughout the whole historic course of European alchemy and chemistry.”[32]

The historian of chemistry Erick John Holmyard gives credit to Jābir for developing alchemy into an experimental science and he writes that Jābir’s importance to the history of chemistry is equal to that of Robert Boyle and Antoine Lavoisier. The historian Paul Kraus, who had studied most of Jābir’s extant works in Arabic and Latin, summarized the importance of Jābir to the history of chemistry by comparing his experimental and systematic works in chemistry with that of the allegorical and unintelligible works of the ancient Greek alchemists.[39] The word gibberish is theorized to be derived from the Latinised version off Jābir’s name,[40] in reference to the incomprehensible technical jargon often used by alchemists, the most famous of whom was Jābir.[41] Other sources such as the Oxford English Dictionary suggest the term stems from gibber; however, the first known recorded use of the term “gibberish” was before the first known recorded use of the word “gibber” (see Gibberish).

[edit] Quotation

  • “My wealth let sons and brethren part. Some things they cannot share: my work well done, my noble heart — these are mine own to wear.”[42]

[edit] The Geber problem

The identity of the author of works attributed to Jabir has long been discussed.[8] According to a famous controversy,[43] pseudo-Geber has been considered as the unknown author of several books in Alchemy.[44] This was first independently suggested, on textual and other grounds, by the 19th-century historians Hermann Kopp and Marcellin Berthelot.[45] Jabir, by reputation the greatest chemist of Islam, has long been familiar to western readers under the name of Geber, which is the medieval rendering of the Arabic Jabir, the Geber of the Middle Ages.[46] The works in Latin corpus were considered to be translations until the studies of Kopp, Hoefer, Berthelot, and Lippman. Although they reflect earlier Arabic alchemy they are not direct translations of “Jabir” but are the work of a 13th century Latin alchemist.[47] Eric Holmyard says in his book Makers of Chemistry Clarendon press.(1931).[48]

There are, however, certain other Latin works, entitled The Sum of Perfection, The Investigation of Perfection, The Invention of Verity, The Book of Furnaces, and The Testament, which pass under his name but of which no Arabic original is known. A problem which historians of chemistry have not yet succeeded in solving is whether these works are genuine or not.

However by 1957 AD when he (Holmyard) wrote Alchemy. Courier Dover Publications. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-486-26298-7. Holmyard had abandoned the idea of an Arabic original. (although they are based on “Islamic” alchemical theories)

The question at once arises whether the Latin works are genuine translations from the Arabic, or written by a Latin author and, according to common practice, ascribed to Jabir in order to heighten their authority. That they are based on Muslim alchemical theory and practice is not questioned, but the same may be said of most Latin treatises on alchemy of that period; and from various turns of phrase it seems likely that their author could read Arabic. But the general style of the works is too clear and systematic to find a close parallel in any of the known writings of the Jabirian corpus, and we look in vain in them for any references to the characteristically Jabirian ideas of “balance” and the alphabetic numerology. Indeed for their age they have a remarkably matter of fact air about them, theory being stated with a minimum of prolixity and much precise practical detail being given. The general impression they convey is that they are the product of an occidental rather than an oriental mind, and a likely guess would be that they were written by a European scholar, possibly in Moorish Spain. Whatever their origin, they became the principal authorities in early Western alchemy and held that position for two or three centuries.

The question of Geber’s identity, whether he is the original Jābir or a “pseudo-Geber” adopting his name, is still in dispute(1962).[49] It is said that Geber, the Latinized form of “Jābir,” was adopted presumably because of the great reputation of a supposed 8th-century alchemist by the name of Jābir ibn Hayyān.[50] About this historical figure, however, there was considerable uncertainty a century ago,[51] and the uncertainty continues today.[52] This is sometimes called the “Geber-Jābir problem”.[53] It is possible that some of the facts mentioned in the Latin works, ascribed to Geber and dating from the 12th century and later, must also be placed to Jabir’s credit. It is important to consider that it is impossible to reach definite conclusions until all the Arabic writings ascribed to Jābir have been properly edited and discussed.[46]

[edit] The Pseudo-Geber corpus

The Latin corpus consists of books with an author named “Geber” for which researchers have failed to find a text in Arabic. Although these books are heavily influenced by Arabic books written by Jābir, the “real” Geber, and by Al Razi and others, they were never written in Arabic. They are in Latin only, they date from about the year 1310, and their author is called Pseudo-Geber:

  • Summa perfectionis magisterii (“The Height of the Perfection of Mastery”).[54]
  • Liber fornacum (“Book of Stills”),
  • De investigatione perfectionis (“On the Investigation of Perfection”), and
  • De inventione veritatis (“On the Discovery of Truth”).
  • Testamentum gerberi

The 2nd, 3rd and 4th books listed above “are merely extracts from or summaries of the Summa Perfectionis Magisterii with later additions.”[55]

[edit] English translations of Jābir and the pseudo-Geber

  • Syed Nomanul Haq, Names, Natures and Things: The Alchemists Jabir ibn Hayyan and his Kitab al-Ahjar (Book of Stones), [Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science p. 158] (Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994), ISBN 0-7923-3254-7.
  • Donald Routledge Hill, ‘The Literature of Arabic Alchemy’ in Religion: Learning and Science in the Abbasid Period, ed. by M.J.L. Young, J.D. Latham and R.B. Serjeant (Cambridge University Press, 1990) pp. 328–341, esp. pp 333–5.
  • E. J. Holmyard (ed.) The Arabic Works of Jabir ibn Hayyan, translated by Richard Russel in 1678. New York, E. P. Dutton (1928); Also Paris, P. Geuther.
  • Geber and William R. Newman, The Summa Perfectionis of Pseudo-Geber: A Critical Edition, Translation and Study ISBN 90-04-09466-4.
  • William R. Newman, New Light on the Identity of Geber, Sudhoffs Archiv, 1985, Vol.69, pp. 76–90.

[edit] Popular culture

  • In S.H.I.E.L.D, Jabir appears as the 8th century leader of the organization.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Kraus, P. (1962). “Djābir B. Ḥayyān”. Encyclopaedia of Islam 2 (2nd ed.). Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 357–359. “As for Djābir’s historic personality, Holmyard has suggested that his father was “a certain Azdī called Hayyan, druggist of Kufa…mentioned…in connection with the political machinations that were used by many people, in the eighth century, finally resulted in the overthrow of the Umayyad dynasty.” 
  2. ^ Holmyard, Eric John, “Introduction” to The Works of Geber, Englished by Richard Russell (London: Dent, 1928), p. vii: “Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan, generally known merely as Jabir, was the son of a druggist belonging to the famous South Arabian tribe of Al-Azd. Members of this tribe had settled at the town of Kufa, in Iraq, shortly after the Muhammadan conquest in the seventh century A.D., and it was in Kufa that Hayyan the druggist lived.”
  3. ^ a b
    • William R. Newman, Gehennical Fire: The Lives of George Starkey, an American Alchemist in the Scientific Revolution, Harvard University Press, 1994. p.94: “According to traditional bio-bibliography of Muslims, Jabir ibn Hayyan was a Persian alchemist who lived at some time in the eighth century and wrote a wealth of books on virtually every aspect of natural philosophy”
    • William R. Newman, The Occult and Manifest Among the Alchemist, in F. J. Ragep, Sally P Ragep, Steven John Livesey, Tradition, Transmission, Transformation: Proceedings of Two Conferences on pre-Modern science held at University of Oklahoma, Brill, 1996/1997, p.178: “This language of extracting the hidden nature formed an important lemma for the extensive corpus associated with the Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan”
    • Henry Corbin, “The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy”, Translated by Joseph H. Rowe, North Atlantic Books, 1998. p.45: “The Nisba al-Azdin certainly does not necessarily indicate Arab origin. Geber seems to have been a client (mawla) of the Azd tribe established in Kufa”
    • Tamara M. Green, “The City of the Moon God: Religious Traditions of Harran (Religions in the Graeco-Roman World)”, Brill, 1992. p.177: “His most famous student was the Persian *Jabir ibn Hayyan (b. circa 721 C.E.), under whose name the vast corpus of alchemical writing circulated in the medieval period in both the east and west, although many of the works attributed to Jabir have been demonstrated to be likely product of later Ismaili’ tradition.”
    • David Gordon White, “The Alchemical Body: Siddha Traditions in Medieval India”, University of Chicago Press, 1996. p.447
    • William R. Newman, Promethean Ambitions: Alchemy and the Quest to Perfect Nature, University of Chicago Press, 2004. p.181: “The corpus ascribed to the eighth-century Persian sage Jabir ibn Hayyan..”
    • Wilbur Applebaum, The Scientific revolution and the foundation of modern science, Greenwood Press, 1995. p.44: “The chief source of Arabic alchemy was associated with the name, in its Latinized form, of Geber, an eighth-century Persian.”
    • Neil Kamil, Fortress of the Soul: Violence, Metaphysics, and Material Life in the Huguenots New World, 1517–1751 (Early America: History, Context, Culture), JHU Press, 2005. p.182: “The ninth-century Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, also known as Geber, is accurately called pseudo-Geber since most of the works published under this name in the West were forgeries”
    • Aleksandr Sergeevich Povarennykh, Crystal Chemical Classification of Minerals, Plenum Press, 1972, v.1, ISBN 0-306-30348-5, p.4: “The first to give separate consideration to minerals and other inorganic substances were the following: The Persian alchemist Jabir (721–815)…”
    • George Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Pub. for the Carnegie Institution of Washington, by the Williams & Wilkins Company, 1931, vol.2 pt.1, page 1044: “Was Geber, as the name would imply, the Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Haiyan?”
    • Dan Merkur, in The psychoanalytic study of society (eds. Bryce Boyer, et al.), vol. 18, Routledge, ISBN 0-88163-161-2, page 352: “I would note that the Persian alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan developed the theory that all metals consist of different ‘balances’ …”
    • Anthony Gross, The Dissolution of the Lancastrian Kingship: Sir John Fortescue and the Crisis of Monarchy in Fifteenth-century England, Paul Watkins, 1996, ISBN 1-871615-90-9, p.19: “Ever since the Seventy Books attributed to the Persian alchemist Jabir Ibn Hayyan had been translated into Latin ….”
  4. ^ Henderson, Joseph L.; Dyane N. Sherwood (2003). Transformation of the Psyche: The Symbolic Alchemy of the Splendor Solis. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press. p. 11. ISBN 1-58391-950-3
  5. ^ a b Haq, Syed N. (1994). Names, Natures and Things. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Volume 158/ Kluwar Academic Publishers. pp. 14–20. ISBN 0-7923-3254-7
  6. ^ a b “Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan”. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 11 February 2008. 
  7. ^ Julian, Franklyn, Dictionary of the Occult, Kessinger Publishing, 2003, ISBN 0-7661-2816-4, ISBN 978-0-7661-2816-3, p. 8.
  8. ^ a b c Glick, Thomas; Eds (2005). Medieval science, technology, and medicine: an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 279. ISBN 0-415-96930-1 
  9. ^ Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis, Faith (2005). Medieval science, technology, and medicine: an encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-96930-7. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Haq, Syed Nomanul (28 February 1995). Names, Natures and Things: The Alchemist Jabir Ibn Hayyan and His Kitab Al-Ahjar (Book of Stones). Springer. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7923-3254-1. Retrieved 18 June 2010. 
  11. ^ a b S.N. Nasr, “Life Sciences, Alchemy and Medicine”, The Cambridge History of Iran, Cambridge, Volume 4, 1975, p. 412: “Jabir is entitled in the traditional sources as al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi, al-Sufi. There is a debate as to whether he was an Arab from Kufa who lived in Khurasan or a Persian from Khorasan who later went to Kufa or whether he was, as some have suggested, of Syrian origin and later lived in Persia and Iraq”.
  12. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named moohanad; see the help page.
  13. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named kalfan; see the help page.
  14. ^ a b c d Holmyard, Eric John (1931). Makers of chemistry. The Clarendon press. Retrieved 19 June 2010. 
  15. ^ Richard Russell (1928). In Holmyard, E.J. The Works of Geber. ISBN 0-7661-0015-4
  16. ^ Henry Corbin, “The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy”, Translated by Joseph H. Rowe, North Atlantic Books, 1998. p.45: “The Nisba al-Azdin certainly does not necessarily indicate Arab origin. Geber seems to have been a client of the Azd tribe established in Kufa”
  17. ^ E. J. Holmyard (ed.) The Arabic Works of Jabir ibn Hayyan, translated by Richard Russell in 1678. New York, E. P. Dutton (1928); Also Paris, P. Geuther.
  18. ^ a b “Iranica JAʿFAR AL-ṢĀDEQ iv. And Esoteric sciences. Retrieved 11 June 2011 The historical relations between Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq and Jāber b. Ḥayyān remain very controversial, as they are linked to still unresolved questions about dating, composition, and authorship of the texts attributed to Jāber. Scholars such as Julius Ruska, Paul Kraus, and Pierre Lory consider Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq’s involvement in the transmission of alchemical knowledge as a literary fiction, whereas Fuat Sezgin, Toufic Fahd, and Nomanul Haq are rather inclined to accept the existence of alchemical activity in Medina in Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq’s time, although they remain cautious regarding the authenticity of the attribution of the Jaberian corpus to Jāber b. Ḥayyān and of the alchemical works to Jaʿfar al-Ṣādeq (Ruska, 1924, pp. 40–52; idem, 1927, pp. 264–66; Kraus, I, pp. LV-LVII; Lory, pp. 14–21, 57–59, 101–7; Sezgin, I, p. 529, IV, pp. 128–31; Fahd, 1970, pp. 139–41; Nomanul Haq, pp. 3–47).
  19. ^ Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization. Taylor and Francis. p. 25. ISBN 0-415-96691-4 
  20. ^ Jabir Ibn Hayyan. Vol. 1. Le corpus des ecrits jabiriens. George Olms Verlag, 1989
  21. ^ Paul Kraus, Jabir ibn Hayyan: Contribution à l’histoire des idées scientifiques dans l’Islam, cited Robert Irwin, ‘The long siesta’ in Times Literary Supllement, 25/1/2008 p.8
  22. ^ Julian, Franklyn, Dictionary of the Occult, Kessinger Publishing, 2003, ISBN 0-7661-2816-4, ISBN 978-0-7661-2816-3, p. 9.
  23. ^ a b KIMIĀ (“Alchemy”), encyclopedia Iranica, Retrieved on 14 February 2009.
  24. ^ “History of Islamic Science”. University of Southern California. 
  25. ^ Holmyard, E. J. (1931). Makers of Chemistry. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 57–8. 
  26. ^ Norris, John (March 2006). “The Mineral Exhalation Theory of Metallogenesis in Pre-Modern Mineral Science”. Ambix (Society for the History of Alchemy and Chemistry) 53: 43–65. doi:10.1179/174582306X93183
  27. ^ Georges C. Anawati, “Arabic alchemy”, in R. Rashed (1996), The Encyclopaedia of the History of Arabic Science, Vol. 3, p. 853-902 [866].
  28. ^ Schufle, J. A.; Thomas, George (Winter 1971). “Equivalent Weights from Bergman’s Data on Phlogiston Content of Metals”. Isis 62 (4): 500. doi:10.1086/350792 
  29. ^ a b Holmyard, E. J. (1931). Makers of Chemistry. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 60. 
  30. ^ a b Ansari, Farzana Latif; Qureshi, Rumana; Qureshi, Masood Latif (1998). Electrocyclic reactions: from fundamentals to research. Wiley-VCH. p. 2. ISBN 3-527-29755-3 
  31. ^ Will Durant (1980). The Age of Faith (The Story of Civilization, Volume 4), p. 162-186. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-01200-2.
  32. ^ a b c Ḥusain, Muẓaffar. Islam’s Contribution to Science. Page 94.
  33. ^ Asimov, Isaac. 1982. Asimov’s Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-17771-2
  34. ^ Ismail al-Faruqi and Lois Lamya al-Faruqi (1986), The Cultural Atlas of Islam, p. 328, New York
  35. ^ a b c Forbes, Robert James (1970). A short history of the art of distillation: from the beginnings up to the death of Cellier Blumenthal. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-00617-1. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 
  36. ^ “Studies in al-Kimya – critical issues in Latin and Arabic Alchemy” by Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, published by Georg Olms Verlag 2009. Chapter 9 “Alcohol and the distillation of wine in Arabic Sources from the 8th century.”
  37. ^ Ragai, Jehane (1992). “The Philosopher’s Stone: Alchemy and Chemistry”. Journal of Comparative Poetics 12 (Metaphor and Allegory in the Middle Ages): 58–77 
  38. ^ Holmyard, E. J. (1924). “Maslama al-Majriti and the Rutbatu’l-Hakim”. Isis 6 (3): 293–305 
  39. ^ Kraus, Paul, Jâbir ibn Hayyân, Contribution à l’histoire des idées scientifiques dans l’Islam. I. Le corpus des écrits jâbiriens. II. Jâbir et la science grecque,. Cairo (1942–1943). Repr. By Fuat Sezgin, (Natural Sciences in Islam. 67–68), Frankfurt. 2002
  40. ^ gibberish, Grose 1811 Dictionary
  41. ^ Seaborg, Glenn T. (March 1980). “Our heritage of the elements”. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B (Springer Boston) 11 (1): 5–19 
  42. ^ Holmyard, Eric John. Alchemy. Page 82
  43. ^ Arthur John Hopkins, Alchemy Child of Greek Philosophy, Published by Kessinger Publishing, LLC, 2007, ISBN 0-548-13547-9, p. 140
  44. ^ “Geber”. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 9 December 2008. 
  45. ^ Openness, Secrecy, Authorship: Technical Arts and the Culture of Knowledge from Antiquity to the Renaissance By Pamela O. Long Edition: illustrated Published by JHU Press, 2001 ISBN 0-8018-6606-5, ISBN 978-0-8018-6606-7
  46. ^ a b Alchemy on Islamic Times, Retrieved on 14 February 2009.
  47. ^ Ihde, Aaron John (1 April 1984). The development of modern chemistry. Courier Dover Publications. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-486-64235-2. Retrieved 14 June 2010. 
  48. ^ Makers of Chemistry, by Eric John Holmyard,… – Eric John Holmyard – Google Boeken. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  49. ^ P. Crosland, Maurice, Historical Studies in the Language of Chemistry, Courier Dover Publications, 2004 1962, ISBN 0-486-43802-3, ISBN 978-0-486-43802-3, p. 15
  50. ^ Long, Pamela O. (2001). Openness, secrecy, authorship: technical arts and the culture of knowledge from antiquity to the Renaissance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6606-5
  51. ^ Hugh Chisholm, ed. (1910). “Geber”. Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (11th ed.). pp. 545–546. 
  52. ^ An authoritative summary and analysis of current scholarship on this question may be found in Lawrence M. Principe, The Secrets of Alchemy, University of Chicago Press, 2013, pp. 33-45 and 54-58.
  53. ^ Thomas F. Glick, Steven John Livesey, Faith Wallis, Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 2005, ISBN 0-415-96930-1, ISBN 978-0-415-96930-7, p. 279-300
  54. ^ William R. Newman, The Summa Perfectionis of Pseudo-Geber. A Critical Edition, Translation and Study, Leyde: E. J. Brill, 1991 (Collection de travaux de l’Académie Internationale d’Histoire des Sciences, 35).
  55. ^ Quote from Marcellin Berthelot at
  56. ^ Coelho, Paulo. The Alchemist. ISBN 006112416, p. 82.

[edit] External links


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Scholars of Khorasan
Although this is not a text. I will be posting Authors and works by great minds, that may aid you in your research. Nox


1. In two and thirty most occult and wonderful paths of wisdom did JAH the Lord of Hosts engrave his name: God of the armies of Israel, ever-living God, merciful and gracious, sublime, dwelling on high, who inhabiteth eternity. He created this universe by the three Sepharim, Number, Writing, and Speech.

2. Ten are the numbers, as are the Sephiroth, and twenty-two the letters, these are the Foundation of all things. Of these letters, three are mothers, seven are double, and twelve are simple.

3. The ten numbers formed from nothing are the Decad: these are seen in the fingers of the hands, five on one, five on the other, and over them is the Covenant by voice spiritual, and the rite of Circumcision, corporeal (as of Abraham).

4. Ten are the numbers of the ineffable Sephiroth, ten and not nine, ten and not eleven. Learn this wisdom, and be wise in the understanding of it, investigate these numbers, and draw knowledge from them, fix the design in its purity, and pass from it to its Creator seated on his throne.

5. These Ten Numbers, beyond the Infinite one, have the boundless realms, boundless origin and end, an abyss of good and one of evil, boundless height and depth, East and West, North and South, and the one only God and king, faithful forever seated on his throne, shall rule over all, forever and ever.

6. These ten Sephiroth which are ineffable, whose appearance is like scintillating flames, have no end but are infinite. The word of God is in them as they burst forth, and as they return; they obey the divine command, rushing along as a whirlwind, returning to prostrate themselves at his throne.

7. These ten Sephiroth which are, moreover, ineffable, have their end even as their beginning, conjoined, even as is a flame to a burning coal: for our God is superlative in his unity, and does not permit any second one. And who canst thou place before the only one?

8. And as to this Decad of the Sephiroth, restrain thy lips from comment, and thy mind from thought of them, and if thy heart fail thee return to thy place; therefore is it written, “The living creatures ran and returned,” and on this wise was the covenant made with us.

9. These are the ten emanations of number. One is the Spirit of the Living God, blessed and more than blessed be the name of the Living God of Ages. The Holy Spirit is his Voice, his Spirit, and his Word.

10. Second, from the Spirit he made Air and formed for speech twenty-two letters, three of which are mothers, A, M, SH, seven are double, B, G, D, K, P, R, T, and twelve are single, E, V, Z, CH, H, I, L, N, S, O, Tz, Q, but the spirit is first among these. Third, Primitive Water. He also formed and designed from his Spirit, and from the void and formless made earth, even as a rampart, or standing wall, and varied its surface even as the crossing of beams. Fourth, from the Water, He designed Fire, and from it formed for himself a throne of honor, with Auphanim, Seraphim, Holy Animals, and ministering Angels, and with these he formed his dwelling, as is written in the text “Who maketh his angels spirits and his ministers a flaming fire.” (Psalm civ. 4.)

11. He selected three letters from the simple ones, and sealed them as forming his great Name, I H V and he sealed the universe in six directions.

Five.- He looked above, and sealed the height, with I H V.

Six.- He looked below, and sealed the deep, with I V H.

Seven.- He looked forward, and sealed the East, with H I V.

Eight.-He looked backward, and sealed the West, with V H I.

Nine.- He looked to the right, and sealed the South, with V I H.

Ten.-He looked to the left, and sealed the North, with H V 1.

12. These are the ten ineffable existences, the spirit of the living God, Air, Water, Fire, Height and Depth, East and West, North and South.


1. The foundations are the twenty-two letters, three mothers, seven double, and twelve single letters. Three mothers, namely A, M, SH, these are Air, Water, and Fire: Mute as Water, Hissing as Fire, and Air of a spiritual type, is as the tongue of a balance standing erect between them pointing out the equilibrium which exists.

2. He hath formed, weighed, transmuted, composed, and created with these twenty-two letters every living being, and every soul yet uncreated.

3. Twenty-two letters are formed by the voice, impressed on the air, and audibly uttered in five situations, in the throat, guttural sounds; in the palate, palatals; by the tongue, linguals; through the teeth, dentals; and by the lips, labial sounds.

4. These twenty-two letters, the foundations, He arranged as on a sphere, with two hundred and thirty-one modes of entrance. If the sphere be rotated forward, good is implied, if in a retrograde manner evil is intended.

5. For He indeed showed the mode of combination of the letters, each with each, Aleph with all, and all with Aleph. Thus in combining all together in pairs are produced these two hundred and thirty-one gates of knowledge. And from Nothingness did He make something, and all forms of speech and every created thing, and from the empty void He made the solid earth, and from the non-existent He brought forth Life.

He hewed, as it were, immense column or colossal pillars, out of the intangible air, and from the empty space. And this is the impress of the whole, twenty-one letters, all from one the Aleph.


1. The three mother letters A, M, SH are the foundations of the whole; and resemble a Balance, the good in one scale, the evil in the other, and the oscillating tongue of the Balance between them.

2. These three mothers enclose a mighty mystery, most occult and most marvelous, sealed as with six rings, and from them proceed primeval Fire, Water, and Air; these are subsequently differentiated into male and female. At first existed these three mothers, and there arose three masculine powers, and hence all things have originated.

3. The three mothers are A, M, SH; and in the beginning as to the Macrocosm the Heavens were created from Fire;nthe Earth from primeval Water; and the Air was formed from the Spirit, which stands alone in the midst, and is the Mediator between them.

4. In the Year or as regards Time, these three mothers represent Heat, Cold, and a Temperate climate, the heat from the fire, the cold from the water, and the temperate state from the spiritual air which again is an equalizer between them.

These three mothers again represent in the Microcosm or Human form, male and female; the Head, the Belly, and the Chest; the bead from the fire, the belly from water, and the chest from the air lieth between them.

5. These three mothers did he create, form, and design, and combine with the three mothers in the world, and in the year, and in Man, both male and female.

He caused Aleph to reign in the air, and crown it, and combined one with the other, and with these he sealed the Air in the world, the temperate climate of the year, and the chest (the lungs for breathing air) in man; the male with A, M, SH, the female with SH, M, A. He caused Mem to predominate in Water, and crowned it, and combined it with others, and formed Earth on the world, cold in the year, and the fruit of the womb in mankind, being carried in the belly.

He caused Shin to reign in Fire and crowned it, and he combined one with the other, and sealed them, as heaven in the universe, as heat in the year, and as the head of Man and Woman.


1. There were formed seven double letters, Beth, Gimel, Daleth, Kaph, Pe, Resh, Tau, each has two voices, either aspirated or softened. These are the foundations of Life, Peace, Riches, Beauty or Reputation, Wisdom, Fruitfulness, and Power. These are double, because their opposites take part in life, opposed to Life is Death; to Peace, War; to Riches, Poverty; to Beauty or Reputation, Deformity or Disrepute; to Wisdom, Ignorance; to Fruitfulness, Sterility; to Power, Slavery.

2. These seven double letters point out the dimensions, East, West, height, depth, North, South, with the holy temple in the middle, sustaining all things.

3. These seven double letters He formed, designed, created, and combined into the Stars of the Universe, the days of the week, the orifices of perception in man; and from them he made seven heavens, and seven planets, all from nothingness, and, moreover, he has preferred and blessed the sacred Heptad.

4. From two letters, or forms He composed two dwellings; from three, six; from four, twenty-four; from five, one hundred and twenty; from six, seven hundred and twenty; from seven, five thousand and forty; and from thence their numbers increase in a manner beyond counting; and are incomprehensible. These seven are Planets of the Universe, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars; the seven days are the days of creation; and these an the seven gateways of a man, two eyes, two ears, two nostrils and a mouth, through which he perceives by his senses.

(Found in some editions)

He caused and produced Beth, predominant in wisdom, crowned, combined, and formed the Moon in the Universe, the first day of the week, and the right eye, of man.

Gimel, predominant in health, crowned, . combined and formed Mars in the Universe, the second day of the week, and the right ear in man.

Daleth, predominant in fertility, crowned, combined, and formed the Sun in the Universe, the third day of the week, and the right nostril in man.

Kaph, predominant in life, crowned, combined, and formed Venus in the Universe, the fourth day of the week, and the left eye of man.

Pe, predominant in power, crowned, combined, and formed Mercury in the Universe, the fifth day of the week, and the left ear in man.

Resh, predominant in peace, crowned, combined, and formed Saturn in the Universe, the sixth day of the week, and the left nostril in man.

Tau, predominant in beauty, crowned, combined and formed Jupiter in the Universe, the seventh day in the week, and the mouth of man.

By these seven letters were also made seven worlds, seven heavens, seven lands, seven seas, seven rivers, seven deserts, seven days (as before), seven weeks from Passover to Pentecost, and every seventh year a jubilee.


1. The simple letters are twelve, namely: He, Vau, Zain, Heth, Teth, Yod, Lamed, Nun, Samech, Oin, Tzaddi, and Quoph; they represent the fundamental properties, eight, hearing, smell, speech, desire for food, the sexual appetite, movement, anger, mirth, thought, sleep, and work. These symbolize also twelve directions in space: northeast, southeast, the east above, the east below, the northwest, southwest, the west above, the west below, the upper south, the lower south, the upper north, the lower north. These diverge to all eternity, and an as the arms of the universe.

2. These twelve letters, he designed, formed, combined, weighed, and changed, and created with them the twelve divisions of the heavens (namely, the zodiacal constellations), the twelve months of the year, and the twelve important organs of the frame of man, namely the right and left hands, the right and left feet, two kidneys, the liver, the gall, the spleen, the intestines, the gullet, and the stomach.

3. Three mothers, seven double and twelve simple, these are the twenty-two letters with which I H V H Tetragrammaton, that is our Lord of Hosts, exalted, and existed in the ages, whose name is Holy, created three fathers, fire and spirit and water, progressing beyond them, seven heavens with their armies of angels; and twelve limits of the universe.

(Found in some Versions)

1. God produced He, predominant in Speech, crowned, combined, and formed Aries in the world, Nisan in the year, and the right foot of man.

2. God produced Vau, predominant in Mind, crowned, combined, and formed Taurus in the world, Yiar in the year, and the right kidney of man.

3. God produced Zain, predominant in movement, crowned, combined, and formed Gemini in the world, Sivan in the year, and the left foot of man.

4. He produced Heth, predominant in Sight, crowned, combined, and formed Cancer in the world, Tammuz in the year, and the right hand of man.

5. He produced Teth, predominant in Hearing, crowned, combined, and formed Leo in the world, Ab in the year, and the left kidney in man.

6. He produced Yod, predominant in Labor, crowned, combined, and formed Virgo in the world, Elul in the year, and the left hand of man.

7. He produced Lamed, predominant in sexual desire, crowned, combined, and formed Libra in the world, Tisri in the year, and the gall in man.

8. He produced Nun, predominant in smell, crowned, combined, and formed Scorpio in the world, Marchesvan in the year, and the intestines in man.

9. He produced Samech, predominant in sleep, crowned, combined, and formed Sagittarius in the world, Kislev in the year, and the stomach of man.

10. He produced Oin, predominant in Anger, crowned, combined, and formed Capricornus in the world, Tebet in the year, and the liver in man.

11. He produced Tzaddi, predominant in Taste, crowned, combined, and formed Aquarius in the world, Sebat in the year, and the gullet in man.

12. He produced Quoph, predominant in Mirth, crowned, combined, and formed Pisces in the world, Adar in the year, and the spleen in man.


1. In proof of these things, and witnessing faithfully are the Universe, the Year of time, and Man himself, the Microcosm. He fixed these as testimonies of the Triad, the Heptad, and the Dodecad; the twelve constellations rulers of the world, the Dragon (THELE) Tali which environs the universe, and the microcosm, man.

The triad, fire, water, and air; the fire above, the water below, and the air in the midst. The proof of which is that air is a participator with both.

2. Tali, the Dragon, is above the Universe, as a king on his throne; the sphere in the year as a king in his State, the Heart of man as a king in warfare.

And our God made the states of opposition, good and evil, good from the good, and evil from the evil. Happiness is reserved for the just, and misery for the wicked ones.

3. And out of the triad one stands apart; and in the heptad there are two triads, and one standing apart. The dodecad symbolizes war, the triad of amity, the triad of enmity, three which are life-giving, three which are death-dealing, and God, the faithful king, rules over all from the throne of his sanctity.

One above three, three above seven, and seven above twelve, and all are linked together, and one with another.

4. After that our father Abraham had seen, and pondered over, investigated, and understood these things, he designed, engraved, and composed them, and received them into his power (hands). Then the Lord of all appeared unto him, made a covenant with him, and kissed his head, and naming him after his own name, called him his friend; and as it is written, completed a covenant with him and with his seed forever, who then believed on God, the Tetragrammaton, and it was imputed to him for righteousness.

God ordained a covenant between the toes of his feet, that of circumcision; and a covenant between the fingers of his hands, that of the Tongue. He bound the essences of the twenty-two letters on his tongue, and God disclosed to him the secrets of them. God has carried these through waters, He has borne them aloft through fire, and He has stamped them in the storms of the air; He has distributed them among the seven stars, and has assigned them to twelve celestial constellations. Amen.



The First Path is called the Admirable or the Concealed Intelligence (The Highest Crown) – for it is the Light giving the power of comprehension of that First Principle which has no beginning, and it is the Primal Glory, for no created being can attain to its essence.

The Second Path is that of the Illuminating Intelligence it is the Crown of Creation, the Splendor of the Unity, equaling it, and it is exalted above every bead, and named by the Kabbalists the Second Glory.

The Third Path is the Sanctifying Intelligence, and is the basis of foundation of Primordial Wisdom, which is called the Former of faith, and its roots, Amen; and it is the parent of Faith, from which virtues doth Faith emanate.

The Fourth Path is named Measuring, Cohesive, or Receptacular; and is so called because it contains all the holy powers, and from it emanate all the spiritual virtues with the most exalted essences: they emanate one from the other by the power of the primordial emanation (The Highest Crown), blessed be it.

The Fifth Path is called the Radical Intelligence, because it is itself the essence equal to the Unity, uniting itself to the BINAH or Intelligence which emanates from the primordial depths of Wisdom or CHOCHMAH.

The Sixth Path is called the Intelligence of the Mediating Influence, because in it are multiplied the influxes of the emanations; for it causes that affluence to flow into all the reservoirs of the Blessings, with which these themselves are united.

The Seventh Path is the Occult Intelligence, because it is the Refulgent Splendor of all the Intellectual virtues which are perceived by the eyes of intellect, and by the contemplation of faith.

The Eighth Path is called Absolute or Perfect, because it is the means of the primordial, which has no root by which it can cleave, nor rest, except in the hidden places Of GEDULAH. Magnificence, which emanate from its own proper essence.

The Ninth Path is the Pure intelligence so called because it purifies the Numerations, it proves and corrects the designing of their representation, and disposes their unity with which they are combined without diminution or division.

The Tenth Path is the Resplendent Intelligence, because it is exalted above every bead, and sits on the throne of BINAH (the Intelligence spoken of in the Third Path). It illuminates the splendor of all lights, and causes a supply of influence to emanate from the Prince of countenances.

The Eleventh Path is the Scintillating Intelligence because it is the essence of that curtain which is placed close to the order of the disposition, and this is a special dignity given to it that it may be able to stand before the Face of the Cause of Causes.

The Twelfth Path is the Intelligence of Transparency, because it is that species of Magnificence., called CHAZCHAZIT, which is named the place whence issues the vision of those seeing in apparitions. (That is, the prophecies by seers in a vision.)

The Thirteenth Path is named the Uniting Intelligence and is so called because it is itself the essence of Glory. It is the Consummation of the Truth of individual spiritual things.

The Fourteenth Path is the Illuminating Intelligence, and is so called because it is itself that CHASHMAL which is the founder of the concealed and fundamental ideas of holiness and of their stages of preparation.

The Fifteenth Path is the Constituting Intelligence, so called because it constitutes the substance of creation in pure darkness, and men have spoken of these contemplations; it is that darkness spoken of in scripture, Job xxxviii. 9, “and thick darkness a swaddling band for it.”

The Sixteenth Path is the Triumphal or Eternal Intelligence, so called because it is the pleasure of the Glory, beyond which is no other Glory like to it, and it is called also the Paradise prepared for the Righteous.

The Seventeenth Path is the Disposing Intelligence, which provides Faith to the Righteous, and they are clothed with the Holy Spirit by it, and it is called the Foundation of Excellence in the state of higher thing.

The Eighteenth Path is called the House of Influence (by the greatness of whose abundance the influx of good things upon created beings is increased) and from the midst of the investigation the arcana and hidden senses are drawn forth, which dwell in its shade and which cling to it, from the cause of all causes.

The Nineteenth Path is the Intelligence of all the activities of the spiritual beings, and is so called because of the affluence diffused by it from the most high blessing and most exalted sublime glory.

The Twentieth Path is the Intelligence of Will, and is so called because it is the means of preparation of all and each created being, and by this intelligence the existence of the Primordial Wisdom becomes known.

The Twenty-first Path is the Intelligence of Conciliation, and is so called because it receives the divine influence which flows into it from its benediction upon all and each existence.

The Twenty-second Path is the Faithful Intelligence, and is so called because by it spiritual virtues are increased, and all dwellers on earth are nearly under its shadow.

The Twenty-third Path is the Stable Intelligence, and it is so called because it has the virtue of consistency among all numerations.

The Twenty-fourth Path is the Imaginative Intelligence, and it is so called because it gives a likeness to all the similitudes, which are created in like manner similar to its harmonious elegancies.

The Twenty-fifth Path is the Intelligence of Probation, or is Tentative, and is so called because it is the primary temptation, by which the Creator (blessed be He) trieth all righteous persons.

The Twenty-sixth Path is called the Renovating Intelligence, because the Holy God (blessed be He) renews by it, all the changing things which are renewed by the creation of the world.

The Twenty-seventh Path is the Exciting Intelligence, and it is so called bemuse by it is created the Intellect of all created beings under the highest heaven, and the excitement or motion of them.

The Twenty-eighth Path is the Natural Intelligence, and is so called because through it is consummated and perfected the nature of every existent being under the orb of the Sun, in perfection.

The Twenty-ninth Path is the Corporeal Intelligence, so called because it forms every body which is, formed beneath the whole set of worlds and the increment of them.

The Thirtieth Path is the Collecting Intelligence, and is so called because Astrologers deduce from it the judgment of the Stars, and of the celestial signs, and the perfections of their science, according to the rules of their revolutions.

The Thirty-first Path is the Perpetual Intelligence; and why is it so called? Because it regulates the motions of the Sun and Moon in their proper order, each in an orbit convenient for it.

The Thirty-second Path is the Administrative Intelligence, and it is so called because it directs and associates, in all their operations, the seven planets, even all of them in their own due courses.


“The Seven Sermons to the Dead,” Septem Sermones ad Mortuos, might best be described as the “summary revelation of the Red Book.” It is the only portion of the imaginative material contained in the Red Book manuscripts that C.G. Jung shared more or less publicly during his lifetime. To comprehend the importance of the Septem Sermones, one must understand the events behind the writing of the Red Book itself — a task ultimately facilitated by the epochal publication of Jung’s Red Book in October of 2009 (C. G. Jung, The Red Book: Liber Novus, ed. Sonu Shamdasani, Norton, 2009). Dr. Shamdasani’s extensive introduction and notes on the text of the Red Book provide a wealth of previously unavailable primary documentation on this crucial period of Jung’s life.

In November of 1913 Carl Jung commenced an extraordinary exploration of the psyche, or “soul.” He called it his “confrontation with the unconscious.” During this period Jung willfully entered imaginative or “visionary” states of consciousness. The visions continued intensely from the end of 1913 until about 1917 and then abated by around 1923. Jung carefully recorded this imaginative journey in six black-covered personal journals (referred to as the “Black Books”); these notebooks provide a dated chronological ledger of his visions and dialogues with his Soul.

The Red Book on the desk of C.G. Jung

The Red Book – Liber Novus
Click to order at

Beginning in late 1914, Jung began transcribing from the Black Book journals the draft manuscript of his legendary Red Book, the folio-sized leather bound illuminated volume he created to contain the formal record of his journey. Jung repeatedly stated that the visions and imaginative experiences recorded in the Red Book contained the nucleus of all his later works.

Jung kept the Red Book private during his lifetime, allowing only a few of his family and associates to read from it. The only part of this visionary material that Jung choose to release in limited circulation was the Septem Sermones, which he had privately printed in 1916. (Click to see a page from the original printing) Throughout his life Jung occasionally gave copies of this small book to friends and students, but it was available only as a gift from Jung himself and never offered for public sale or distribution. When Jung’s autobiographical memoir Memories, Dreams, Reflections was published in 1962, the Septem Sermones ad Mortuos was included as an appendix.

It remained unclear until very recently exactly how the Septem Sermones ad Mortuos related to the hidden Red Book materials. After Jung’s death in 1961, all access to the Red Book was denied by his heirs. Finally in October of 2009, nearly fifty years after Jung’s death, the family of C. G. Jung release the Red Book for publication in a beautiful facsimile edition, edited by Sonu Shamdasani. With this central work of Jung’s now in hand, we discover that the Seven Sermons to the Dead actually compose the closing pages of the Red Book draft manuscripts; the version transcribed for the Red Book varies only slightly from the text published in 1916, however the Red Book includes after each of the sermons an additional amplifying homily by Philemon (Jung’s spirit guide). [The Red Book, p346-54]

Base on their context, voice, content, and history, I suggest the Septem Sermones ad Mortuos might now properly be described as the “summary revelation of the Red Book.” Seen in this light, it becomes understandable why Jung chose this one section of his “revelations” for printing and distribution among his disciples.

Near the end of his life, Jung spoke to Aniela Jaffe about the Septem Sermones and explained “that the discussions with the dead [in the Seven Sermons] formed the prelude to what he would subsequently communicate to the world, and that their content anticipated his later books. ‘From that time on, the dead have become ever more distinct for me as the voices of the unanswered. unresolved and unredeemed.’ ” [The Red Book, p346 n78] Jung’s decision in 1916 to publish this single summary statement from the Red Book writings gives evidence of the importance he ascribed to the Seven Sermons. In this same context, Jung remarked to Aniela Jaffe:

The years … when I pursued the inner images were the most important time of my life. Everything else is to be derived from this. It began at that time, and the later details hardly matter anymore. My entire life consisted in elaborating what had burst forth from the unconscious and flooded me like an enigmatic stream and threatened to break me. That was the stuff and material for more than only one life.

Everything later was merely the outer classification, the scientific elaboration, and the integration into life. But the numinous beginning, which contained everything, was then.”

In Memories, Dreams, Reflections Jung gives one account of how the Septem Sermones came to be written (the Sunday referred to below is probably Sunday, 30 January 1916):

It began with a restlessness, but I did not know what it meant or what “they” wanted of me. There was an ominous atmosphere all around me. I had the strange feeling that the air was filled with ghostly entities. Then it was as if my house began to be haunted….

Around five o’clock in the afternoon on Sunday the front doorbell began ringing frantically…but there was no one in sight. I was sitting near the doorbell, and not only heard it but saw it moving. We all simply stared at one another. The atmosphere was thick, believe me! Then I knew that something had to happen. The whole house was filled as if there were a crowd present, crammed full of spirits. They were packed deep right up to the door, and the air was so thick it was scarcely possible to breathe. As for myself, I was all a-quiver with the question: “For God’s sake, what in the world is this?” Then they cried out in chorus, “We have come back from Jerusalem where we found not what we sought/’ That is the beginning of the Septem Sermones. (Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p190-1)

A careful reading of The Red Book (including the abundant notes provided by the editor, Sonu Shamdasani) provides further contextual information. Shamdasani includes in the appendix a crucial journal entry from Jung’s Black Book 5, dated 16 January 1916 [The Red Book, Appendix C, p370-1]. In this entry, Jung’s Soul reveals to him the cosmological vision that will be more fully developed two weeks later in the Seven Sermons to the Dead. During these weeks Jung sketched in his journal the outlines of his first “mandala”, the Systema Munditotius, which forms a schema to the vision conveyed in the Sermons [The Red Book, Appendix A, p363-4]. The Seven Sermons are recorded in journal entries in Black Book 6, dated 31 January to 8 February 1916.

In the original journal account of the revelation (Black Book 6) Jung himself is the voice speaking the Seven Sermons to the Dead. In the version transcribed into the Red Book manuscript, Jung gives Philemon as the voice speaking the Sermons. Interestingly, a few pages later, on the last page of the Red Book manuscript, Philemon is identified with the historical Gnostic prophet Simon Magus. When Jung subsequently transcribed the Sermons for printing as an independent text, the Sermons were attributed pseudepigraphically to yet another historical second century Gnostic teacher, Basilides of Alexandria. Thus Jung, Philemon, Simon Magus, and Basilides are all finally conflated together in the voice of the Gnostic prophet who speaks the Septem Sermones ad Mortuos.


Jung and Gnostic Tradition

For a further introduction to Jung and Gnostic tradition, read the introductory excerpt from The Gnostic Jung and the Seven Sermons to the Dead by Stephan A. Hoeller: The Gnosis of C. G. Jung.



Two English translations of the text are available in our library. The first translation (below) by H. G Baynes is the version published as an appendix in Memories, Dreams, Reflections. The second translation was made by Stephan A. Hoeller based on his transcription of a private copy of the Septem Sermones ad Mortuos which came to him in 1949. It is found in his book, The Gnostic Jung and the Seven Sermons to the Dead, and is included here by permission of the author.

The translation by Dr. Hoeller is recommended to readers — Click here for the Hoeller translation of The Seven Sermons to the Dead.

The most compete version of the material surrounding the Septem Sermones is found in C. G. Jung, The Red Book: Liber Novus. It should be remembered, however, that this primary version remained hidden and largely unknown until very recently. Students of Jung are encouraged to again consider the text of the Septem Sermones as published and shared by Jung — this is the signal revelation of Jung’s hidden vision.

– Lance S. Owens


VII Sermones ad Mortuos

(Seven Sermons to the Dead)

C.G. Jung, 1916
(Translation by H. G. Baynes)




Sermo I

The dead came back from Jerusalem, where they found not what they sought. They prayed me let them in and besought my word, and thus I began my teaching.

Harken: I begin with nothingness. Nothingness is the same as fullness. In infinity full is no better than empty. Nothingness is both empty and full. As well might ye say anything else of nothingness, as for instance, white is it, or black, or again, it is not, or it is. A thing that is infinite and eternal hath no qualities, since it hath all qualities.

This nothingness or fullness we name the PLEROMA. Therein both thinking and being cease, since the eternal and infinite possess no qualities. In it no being is, for he then would be distinct from the pleroma, and would possess qualities which would distinguish him as something distinct from the pleroma.

In the pleroma there is nothing and everything. It is quite fruitless to think about the pleroma, for this would mean self-dissolution.

CREATURA is not in the pleroma, but in itself. The pleroma is both beginning and end of created beings. It pervadeth them, as the light of the sun everywhere pervadeth the air. Although the pleroma pervadeth altogether, yet hath created being no share thereof, just as a wholly transparent body becometh neither light nor dark through the light which pervadeth it. We are, however, the pleroma itself, for we are a part of the eternal and infinite. But we have no share thereof, as we are from the pleroma infinitely removed; not spiritually or temporally, but essentially, since we are distinguished from the pleroma in our essence as creatura, which is confined within time and space.

Yet because we are parts of the pleroma, the pleroma is also in us. Even in the smallest point is the pleroma endless, eternal, and entire, since small and great are qualities which are contained in it. It is that nothingness which is everywhere whole and continuous. Only figuratively, therefore, do I speak of created being as a part of the pleroma. Because, actually, the pleroma is nowhere divided, since it is nothingness. We are also the whole pleroma, because, figuratively, the pleroma is the smallest point (assumed only, not existing) in us and the boundless firmament about us. But wherefore, then, do we speak of the pleroma at all, since it is thus everything and nothing?

I speak of it to make a beginning somewhere, and also to free you from the delusion that somewhere, either without or within, there standeth something fixed, or in some way established, from the beginning. Every so-called fixed and certain thing is only relative. That alone is fixed and certain which is subject to change.

What is changeable, however, is creatura. Therefore is it the one thing which is fixed and certain; because it hath qualities: it is even quality itself.

The question ariseth: How did creatura originate? Created beings came to pass, not creatura; since created being is the very quality of the pleroma, as much as non-creation which is the eternal death. In all times and places is creation, in all times and places is death. The pleroma hath all, distinctiveness and non-distinctiveness.

Distinctiveness is creatura. It is distinct. Distinctiveness is its essence, and therefore it distinguisheth. Therefore man discriminateth because his nature is distinctiveness. Wherefore also he distinguisheth qualities of the pleroma which are not. He distinguisheth them out of his own nature. Therefore must he speak of qualities of the pleroma which are not.

What use, say ye, to speak of it? Saidst thou not thyself, there is no profit in thinking upon the pleroma?

That said I unto you, to free you from the delusion that we are able to think about the pleroma. When we distinguish qualities of the pleroma, we are speaking from the ground of our own distinctiveness and concerning our own distinctiveness. But we have said nothing concerning the pleroma. Concerning our own distinctiveness, however, it is needful to speak, whereby we may distinguish ourselves enough. Our very nature is distinctiveness. If we are not true to this nature we do not distinguish ourselves enough. Therefore must we make distinctions of qualities.

What is the harm, ye ask, in not distinguishing oneself? If we do not distinguish, we get beyond our own nature, away from creatura. We fall into indistinctiveness, which is the other quality of the pleroma. We fall into the pleroma itself and cease to be creatures. We are given over to dissolution in the nothingness. This is the death of the creature. Therefore we die in such measure as we do not distinguish. Hence the natural striving of the creature goeth towards distinctiveness, fighteth against primeval, perilous sameness. This is called the principium individuationis. This principle is the essence of the creature. From this you can see why indistinctiveness and non-distinction are a great danger for the creature.

We must, therefore, distinguish the qualities of the pleroma. The qualities are pairs of opposites, such as—

The Effective and the Ineffective.
Fullness and Emptiness.
Living and Dead.
Difference and Sameness.
Light and Darkness.
The Hot and the Cold.
Force and Matter.
Time and Space.
Good and Evil.
Beauty and Ugliness.
The One and the Many. etc.

The pairs of opposites are qualities of the pleroma which are not, because each balanceth each. As we are the pleroma itself, we also have all these qualities in us. Because the very ground of our nature is distinctiveness, therefore we have these qualities in the name and sign of distinctiveness, which meaneth—

1. These qualities are distinct and separate in us one from the other; therefore they are not balanced and void, but are effective. Thus are we the victims of the pairs of opposites. The pleroma is rent in us.
2. The qualities belong to the pleroma, and only in the name and sign of distinctiveness can and must we possess or live them. We must distinguish ourselves from qualities. In the pleroma they are balanced and void; in us not. Being distinguished from them delivereth us.

When we strive after the good or the beautiful, we thereby forget our own nature, which is distinctiveness, and we are delivered over to the qualities of the pleroma, which are pairs of opposites. We labor to attain to the good and the beautiful, yet at the same time we also lay hold of the evil and the ugly, since in the pleroma these are one with the good and the beautiful. When, however, we remain true to our own nature, which is distinctiveness, we distinguish ourselves from the good and the beautiful, and, therefore, at the same time, from the evil and the ugly. And thus we fall not into the pleroma, namely, into nothingness and dissolution.

Thou sayest, ye object, that difference and sameness are also qualities of the pleroma. How would it be, then, if we strive after difference? Are we, in so doing, not true to our own nature? And must we none the less be given over to sameness when we strive after difference?

Ye must not forget that the pleroma hath no qualities. We create them through thinking. If, therefore, ye strive after difference or sameness, or any qualities whatsoever, ye pursue thoughts which flow to you out of the pleroma; thoughts, namely, concerning non-existing qualities of the pleroma. Inasmuch as ye run after these thoughts, ye fall again into the pleroma, and reach difference and sameness at the same time. Not your thinking, but your being, is distinctiveness. Therefore not after difference, as ye think it, must ye strive; but after your own being. At bottom, therefore, there is only one striving, namely, the striving after your own being. If ye had this striving ye would not need to know anything about the pleroma and its qualities, and yet would ye come to your right goal by virtue of your own being. Since, however, thought estrangeth from being, that knowledge must I teach you wherewith ye may be able to hold your thought in leash.


Sermo II

In the night the dead stood along the wall and cried:

We would have knowledge of god. Where is god? Is god dead?

God is not dead. Now, as ever, he liveth. God is creatura, for he is something definite, and therefore distinct from the pleroma. God is quality of the pleroma, and everything which I said of creatura also is true concerning him.

He is distinguished, however, from created beings through this, that he is more indefinite and indeterminable than they. He is less distinct than created beings, since the ground of his being is effective fullness. Only in so far as he is definite and distinct is he creatura, and in like measure is he the manifestation of the effective fullness of the pleroma.

Everything which we do not distinguish falleth into the pleroma and is made void by its opposite. If, therefore, we do not distinguish god, effective fullness is for us extinguished.

Moreover god is the pleroma itself, as likewise each smallest point in the created and uncreated is the pleroma itself.

Effective void is the nature of the devil. God and devil are the first manifestations of nothingness, which we call the pleroma. It is indifferent whether the pleroma is or is not, since in everything it is balanced and void. Not so creatura. In so far as god and devil are creatura they do not extinguish each other, but stand one against the other as effective opposites. We need no proof of their existence. It is enough that we must always be speaking of them. Even if both were not, creatura, of its own essential distinctiveness, would forever distinguish them anew out of the pleroma.

Everything that discrimination taketh out of the pleroma is a pair of opposites. To god, therefore, always belongeth the devil.

This inseparability is as close and, as your own life hath made you see, as indissoluble as the pleroma itself. Thus it is that both stand very close to the pleroma, in which all opposites are extinguished and joined.

God and devil are distinguished by the qualities fullness and emptiness, generation and destruction. Effectiveness is common to both. Effectiveness joineth them. Effectiveness, therefore, standeth above both; is a god above god, since in its effect it uniteth fullness and emptiness.

This is a god whom ye knew not, for mankind forgot it. We name it by its name Abraxas. It is more indefinite still than god and devil.

That god may be distinguished from it, we name god Helios or Sun. Abraxas is effect. Nothing standeth opposed to it but the ineffective; hence its effective nature freely unfoldeth itself. The ineffective is not, therefore resisteth not. Abraxas standeth above the sun and above the devil. It is improbable probability, unreal reality. Had the pleroma a being, Abraxas would be its manifestation. It is the effective itself, not any particular effect, but effect in general.

It is unreal reality, because it hath no definite effect.

It is also creatura, because it is distinct from the pleroma.

The sun hath a definite effect, and so hath the devil. Wherefore do they appear to us more effective than indefinite Abraxas.

It is force, duration, change.

The dead now raised a great tumult, for they were Christians.


Sermo III

Like mists arising from a marsh, the dead came near and cried: Speak further unto us concerning the supreme god.

Hard to know is the deity of Abraxas. Its power is the greatest, because man perceiveth it not. From the sun he draweth the summum bonum; from the devil the infimum malum; but from Abraxas life, altogether indefinite, the mother of good and evil.

Smaller and weaker life seemeth to be than the summum bonum; wherefore is it also hard to conceive that Abraxas transcendeth even the sun in power, who is himself the radiant source of all the force of life.

Abraxas is the sun, and at the same time the eternally sucking gorge of the void, the belittling and dismembering devil.

The power of Abraxas is twofold; but ye see it not, because for your eyes the warring opposites of this power are extinguished.

What the god-sun speaketh is life.

What the devil speaketh is death.

But Abraxas speaketh that hallowed and accursed word which is life and death at the same time.

Abraxas begetteth truth and lying, good and evil, light and darkness, in the same word and in the same act. Wherefore is Abraxas terrible.

It is splendid as the lion in the instant he striketh down his victim. It is beautiful as a day of spring. It is the great Pan himself and also the small one. It is Priapos.

It is the monster of the under-world, a thousand-armed polyp, coiled knot of winged serpents, frenzy.

It is the hermaphrodite of the earliest beginning.

It is the lord of the toads and frogs, which live in the water and go up on the land, whose chorus ascendeth at noon and at midnight.

It is abundance that seeketh union with emptiness.

It is holy begetting.

It is love and love’s murder.

It is the saint and his betrayer.

It is the brightest light of day and the darkest night of madness.

To look upon it, is blindness.

To know it, is sickness.

To worship it, is death.

To fear it, is wisdom.

To resist it not, is redemption.

God dwelleth behind the sun, the devil behind the night. What god bringeth forth out of the light the devil sucketh into the night. But Abraxas is the world, its becoming and its passing. Upon every gift that cometh from the god-sun the devil layeth his curse.

Everything that ye entreat from the god-sun begetteth a deed of the devil.

Everything that ye create with the god-sun giveth effective power to the devil.

That is terrible Abraxas.

It is the mightiest creature, and in it the creature is afraid of itself.

It is the manifest opposition of creatura to the pleroma and its nothingness.

It is the son’s horror of the mother.

It is the mother’s love for the son.

It is the delight of the earth and the cruelty of the heavens.

Before its countenance man becometh like stone.

Before it there is no question and no reply.

It is the life of creatura.

It is the operation of distinctiveness.

It is the love of man.

It is the speech of man.

It is the appearance and the shadow of man.

It is illusory reality.

Now the dead howled and raged, for they were unperfected.


Sermo IV

The dead filled the place murmuring and said:

Tell us of gods and devils, accursed one!

The god-sun is the highest good; the devil is the opposite. Thus have ye two gods. But there are many high and good things and many great evils. Among these are two god-devils; the one is the burning one, the other the growing one.

The burning one is eros, who hath the form of flame. Flame giveth light because it consumeth.

The growing one is the tree of life. It buddeth, as in growing it heapeth up living stuff.

Eros flameth up and dieth. But the tree of life groweth with slow and constant increase through unmeasured time.

Good and evil are united in the flame.

Good and evil are united in the increase of the tree. In their divinity stand life and love opposed.

Innumerable as the host of the stars is the number of gods and devils.

Each star is a god, and each space that a star filleth is a devil. But the empty-fullness of the whole is the pleroma.

The operation of the whole is Abraxas, to whom only the ineffective standeth opposed.

Four is the number of the principal gods, as four is the number of the world’s measurements.

One is the beginning, the god-sun.

Two is Eros; for he bindeth twain together and outspreadeth himself in brightness.

Three is the Tree of Life, for it filleth space with bodily forms.

Four is the devil, for he openeth all that is closed. All that is formed of bodily nature doth he dissolve; he is the destroyer in whom everything is brought to nothing.

For me, to whom knowledge hath been given of the multiplicity and diversity of the gods, it is well. But woe unto you, who replace these incompatible many by a single god. For in so doing ye beget the torment which is bred from not understanding, and ye mutilate the creature whose nature and aim is distinctiveness. How can ye be true to your own nature when ye try to change the many into one? What ye do unto the gods is done likewise unto you. Ye all become equal and thus is your nature maimed.

Equality shall prevail not for god, but only for the sake of man. For the gods are many, whilst men are few. The gods are mighty and can endure their manifoldness. For like the stars they abide in solitude, parted one from the other by immense distances. But men are weak and cannot endure their manifold nature. Therefore they dwell together and need communion, that they may bear their separateness. For redemption’s sake I teach you the rejected truth, for the sake of which I was rejected.

The multiplicity of the gods correspondeth to the multiplicity of man.

Numberless gods await the human state. Numberless gods have been men. Man shareth in the nature of the gods. He cometh from the gods and goeth unto god.

Thus, just as it serveth not to reflect upon the pleroma, it availeth not to worship the multiplicity of the gods. Least of all availeth it to worship the first god, the effective abundance and the summum bonum. By our prayer we can add to it nothing, and from it nothing take; because the effective void swalloweth all.

The bright gods form the celestial world. It is manifold and infinitely spreading and increasing. The god-sun is the supreme lord of that world.

The dark gods form the earth-world. They are simple and infinitely diminishing and declining. The devil is the earth-world’s lowest lord, the moon-spirit, satellite of the earth, smaller, colder, and more dead than the earth.

There is no difference between the might of the celestial gods and those of the earth. The celestial gods magnify, the earth-gods diminish. Measureless is the movement of both.


Sermo V

The dead mocked and cried: Teach us, fool, of the church and holy communion.

The world of the gods is made manifest in spirituality and in sexuality. The celestial ones appear in spirituality, the earthly in sexuality.

Spirituality conceiveth and embraceth. It is womanlike and therefore we call it mater coelestis, the celestial mother. Sexuality engendereth and createth. It is manlike, and therefore we call it phallos, the earthly father.

The sexuality of man is more of the earth, the sexuality of woman is more of the spirit.

The spirituality of man is more of heaven, it goeth to the greater.

The spirituality of woman is more of the earth, it goeth to the smaller.

Lying and devilish is the spirituality of the man which goeth to the smaller.

Lying and devilish is the spirituality of the woman which goeth to the greater.

Each must go to its own place.

Man and woman become devils one to the other when they divide not their spiritual ways, for the nature of creatura is distinctiveness.

The sexuality of man hath an earthward course, the sexuality of woman a spiritual. Man and woman become devils one to the other if they distinguish not their sexuality.

Man shall know of the smaller, woman the greater.

Man shall distinguish himself both from spirituality and from sexuality. He shall call spirituality Mother, and set her between heaven and earth. He shall call sexuality Phallos, and set him between himself and earth. For the Mother and the Phallos are super-human daemons which reveal the world of the gods. They are for us more effective than the gods, because they are closely akin to our own nature. Should ye not distinguish yourselves from sexuality and from spirituality, and not regard them as of a nature both above you and beyond, then are ye delivered over to them as qualities of the pleroma. Spirituality and sexuality are not your qualities, not things which ye possess and contain. But they possess and contain you; for they are powerful daemons, manifestations of the gods, and are, therefore, things which reach beyond you, existing in themselves. No man hath a spirituality unto himself, or a sexuality unto himself. But he standeth under the law of spirituality and of sexuality.

No man, therefore, escapeth these daemons. Ye shall look upon them as daemons, and as a common task and danger, a common burden which life hath laid upon you. Thus is life for you also a common task and danger, as are the gods, and first of all terrible Abraxas.

Man is weak, therefore is communion indispensable. If your communion be not under the sign of the Mother, then is it under the sign of the Phallos. No communion is suffering and sickness. Communion in everything is dismemberment and dissolution.

Distinctiveness leadeth to singleness. Singleness is opposed to communion. But because of man’s weakness over against the gods and daemons and their invincible law is communion needful. Therefore shall there be as much communion as is needful, not for man’s sake, but because of the gods. The gods force you to communion. As much as they force you, so much is communion needed, more is evil.

In communion let every man submit to others, that communion be maintained; for ye need it.

In singleness the one man shall be superior to the others, that every man may come to himself and avoid slavery.

In communion there shall be continence.

In singleness there shall be prodigality.

Communion is depth.

Singleness is height.

Right measure in communion purifieth and preserveth.

Right measure in singleness purifieth and increaseth.

Communion giveth us warmth, singleness giveth us light.


Sermo VI

The daemon of sexuality approacheth our soul as a serpent. It is half human and appeareth as thought-desire.

The daemon of spirituality descendeth into our soul as the white bird. It is half human and appeareth as desire-thought.

The serpent is an earthy soul, half daemonic, a spirit, and akin to the spirits of the dead. Thus too, like these, she swarmeth around in the things of earth, making us either to fear them or pricking us with intemperate desires. The serpent hath a nature like unto woman. She seeketh ever the company of the dead who are held by the spell of the earth, they who found not the way beyond that leadeth to singleness. The serpent is a whore. She wantoneth with the devil and with evil spirits; a mischievous tyrant and tormentor, ever seducing to evilest company. The white bird is a half-celestial soul of man. He bideth with the Mother, from time to time descending. The bird hath a nature like unto man, and is effective thought. He is chaste and solitary, a messenger of the Mother. He flieth high above earth. He commandeth singleness. He bringeth knowledge from the distant ones who went before and are perfected. He beareth our word above to the Mother. She intercedeth, she warneth, but against the gods she hath no power. She is a vessel of the sun. The serpent goeth below and with her cunning she lameth the phallic daemon, or else goadeth him on. She yieldeth up the too crafty thoughts of the earthy one, those thoughts which creep through every hole and cleave to all things with desirousness. The serpent, doubtless, willeth it not, yet she must be of use to us. She fleeth our grasp, thus showing us the way, which with our human wits we could not find.

With disdainful glance the dead spake: Cease this talk of gods and daemons and souls. At bottom this hath long been known to us.


Sermo VII

Yet when night was come the dead again approached with lamentable mien and said: There is yet one matter we forgot to mention. Teach us about man.

Man is a gateway, through which from the outer world of gods, daemons, and souls ye pass into the inner world; out of the greater into the smaller world. Small and transitory is man. Already is he behind you, and once again ye find yourselves in endless space, in the smaller or innermost infinity. At immeasurable distance standeth one single Star in the zenith.

This is the one god of this one man. This is his world, his pleroma, his divinity.

In this world is man Abraxas, the creator and the destroyer of his own world.

This Star is the god and the goal of man.

This is his one guiding god. In him goeth man to his rest. Toward him goeth the long journey of the soul after death. In him shineth forth as light all that man bringeth back from the greater world. To this one god man shall pray.

Prayer increaseth the light of the Star. It casteth a bridge over death. It prepareth life for the smaller world and assuageth the hopeless desires of the greater.

When the greater world waxeth cold, burneth the Star.

Between man and his one god there standeth nothing, so long as man can turn away his eyes from the flaming spectacle of Abraxas.

Man here, god there.

Weakness and nothingness here, there eternally creative power.

Here nothing but darkness and chilling moisture.

There wholly sun.

Whereupon the dead were silent and ascended like the smoke above the herdsman’s fire, who through the night kept watch over his flock.



Freemasonry- “Apprentice”

Posted: December 3, 2012 by noxprognatus in Occult, Texts

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Seven Freemasons, viz., six Entered Apprentices and one Master Mason, acting under a charter or dispensation from some Grand Lodge, is the requisite number to constitute a Lodge of Masons, and to initiate a candidate to the First Degree of Masonry.

They assemble in a room well guarded from all cowans and eaves-droppers, in the second or third story (as the case may be) of some building suitably prepared and furnished for Lodge purposes, which is, by Masons, termed “the Ground Floor of King Solomon’s Temple.”

The officers take their seats, as represented in the Plate. Lodge-meetings are arranged as follows, viz.: a “regular” is held but once a month (i.e. every month on, or preceding, the full of the moon in each month); special meetings are held as often as the exigency of the case may seem to demand, if every night in the week, Sunday excepted. If Tuesday should be Lodge night, by Masons it would be termed, “Tuesday evening on or before the full of the moon, a regular night =”LODGE OF ENTERED APPRENTICES, FELLOW CRAFTS, OR MASTER MASONS.” src=”tn/00800.jpg” /> Click to enlarge LODGE OF ENTERED APPRENTICES, FELLOW CRAFTS, OR MASTER MASONS.href=”; rel=”attachment wp-att-744″>01000<a

1. Candidate prays. 2. First stop. 3. Second stop. 4. Third stop. 5. Room where candidates are prepared. 6. Ante-room where members enter the lodge. 7. Hall. 8. Doors. 9. Door through which candidates are admitted into the lodge. 10. Door through which members enter. 11. Altar. 12. Treasurer. 13. Secretary. 14. Senior Deacon. 15. Worshipful Master. 16. Junior Warden. 17 and 18. Stewards. 19. Senior Warden. 20. Junior Deacon. 21. Tyler.


All business relative to Masonry is done at a “regular,” and in the Third, or Master Mason Degree. None but Master Masons are allowed to be present at such meetings; balloting for candidates is generally done on a “regular,” also receiving petitions, committee reports, &c., &c.

A petition for the degrees of Masonry is generally received at a “regular” (though, as a common thing, Grand Lodges of each State make such arrangements as they may deem best for the regulation of their several subordinate Lodges).

At the time of receiving a petition for the degrees of Masonry, the Master appoints a committee of three, whose duty it is to make inquiry after the character of the applicant, and report good or bad, as the case may be, at the next regular meeting, when it is acted upon by the Lodge.

Upon reception of the committee’s report, a ballot is had: if no black balls appear, the candidate is declared duly elected; but if one black ball or more appear, he is declared rejected.

No business is done in a Lodge of Entered Apprentices, except to initiate a candidate to the First Degree in Masonry, nor is any business done in a Fellow Crafts’ Lodge, except to pass a Fellow Craft from the first to the second degree. To explain more thoroughly: when a candidate is initiated to the First Degree, he is styled as “entered;” when he has taken the Second Degree, “passed.” and when he has taken the Third, “raised” to the sublime Degree of a Master Mason. No one is allowed to be present, in any degree of Masonry, except he be one of that same degree or higher. The Master always wears his hat when presiding as such, but no other officer, in a “Blue Lodge” (a “Blue Lodge” is a Lodge of Master Masons, where only three degrees are conferred, viz.: Entered Apprentice, 1st; Fellow Craft, 2d; Master Mason, 3d. Country Lodges are mostly all “Blue Lodges“).

A Lodge of Fellow Craft Masons consists of five, viz.: Worshipful Master, Senior and Junior Wardens, Senior and Junior Dear hens; yet seven besides the Tyler generally assist, and take their seats as in the Entered Apprentice’s Degree. The Fellow Craft Lodge is styled by Masons “the Middle Chamber of King Solomon’s Temple.”

Three Master Masons is the requisite number to constitute a Masters’ Lodge, which is called by Masons “the Sanctum Sanctorum, or, Holy of Holies of King Solomon’s Temple.” Although three are all that is required by “Masonic Law” to open a Third Degree Lodge, there are generally seven besides the Tyler, as in the other degrees.

All the Lodges meet in one room, alike furnished, for the conferring


of the different degrees (E. A., F. C., and M. M.); but they are masonically styled by the Craft as the Ground Floor, Middle Chamber, and Sanctum Sanctorum.

A person being in the room, while open on the First Degree, would not see any difference in the appearance of the room from a Master Masons’ Lodge. It is the duty of the Tyler to inform all the brethren on what degree the Lodge is at work, especially those that arrive too late (i.e., after the Lodge has been opened). so that none will be liable to give the wrong sign to the Worshipful Master when he enters. If the Lodge is opened on the First Degree, there might he present those who had taken only one degree, and, if the brother arriving late should be ignorant of this fact, and make


a Third Degree sign, they would see it; consequently, caution on this point should always be given to such brethren by the Tyler, before entering the Lodge.


Usual way: Brethren that arrive too late come up to the ante-room, which they find occupied by the Tyler, sword in hand; after inquiring of the Tyler on what degree the Lodge is at work (opened), they put on an apron, and request the Tyler to let them in; the Tyler steps to the door, gives one rap (•), i.e. if opened on the First Degree; two raps (• •), if Second Degree; three raps (• • •), if the Third Degree; which being heard by the Junior Deacon, on the inside, he reports to the Master the alarm, as follows, viz.:

J. D.–Worshipful Master, there is an alarm at the inner door of our Lodge.

W. M.–Attend to the alarm, Brother Junior, and ascertain the cause.

Junior Deacon opens the door and inquires of the Tyler the cause of the alarm; when the Tyler will report the brethren’s

names (which we will suppose to be Jones, Brown, and Smith).

J. D. (to the Master)–Brothers Jones, Brown, and Smith are without, and wish admission.

If they are known to the Master, he will say, “Admit them.”

Deacon opens the door, and says, in an under tone of voice, “Come in.” These brothers advance to the centre of the Lodge, at the altar make the duegard, and sign of the degree on which the Lodge is opened, which is responded to by the Master, and then take their seats among the brethren. No brother is allowed to take his seat until he has saluted the Worshipful Master on entering a Lodge; and if one omits his duty in this respect, he is immediately reminded of it by either the Master or some one of the brethren present. The Tyler generally cautions the brethren, before entering the Lodge, about giving the sign, before passing them through the door; the Junior Deacon the same, as soon as they are in. This officer’s station is at the inner door, and it is his duty to attend to all alarms from the outside, to report the same to the Master, and get his permission before admitting any one.

The author remembers seeing the duegard and sign of a Master Mason given, while yet an Entered Apprentice Mason: he was sitting one evening in the Lodge, when a brother of the Third Degree came in, and very carelessly saluted the Master with the Master’s duegard and sign, undoubtedly supposing the Lodge open on that degree–a very common error among Masons.

In large cities there are often more than one Lodge. Some cities have ten or twenty, and even more; in the cities of New York and Brooklyn there are one hundred and thirty-five Lodges, besides Chapters, Councils, Commanderies, &c., &c. Consequently, there are Lodge-meetings of some sort every night in the week, excepting Sunday, and of course much visiting is going on between the different Lodges. The visitors are not all known to the Masters personally; but the brethren are, generally, acquainted with each other, and of course have often to be vouched for in some of the Lodges, or pass an examination; and for the purpose of giving the reader an idea of the manner in which they are admitted, the author will suppose a case, in order to illustrate it. Jones, Smith, and Brown, belonging to Amity Lodge, No. 323, in Broadway, New York, wish to visit Hiram Lodge, No. 449, of Twenty-fifth Street, and for that purpose go on Lodge night to the hall of Hiram Lodge, No. 449, and ask the Tyler for admission. The Tyler, perhaps, will say–Brothers, are you acquainted with our Master, or any of the brethren in the Lodge? Smith, Jones, and Brown will say, perhaps, Yes; or, We can’t tell, but pass our names in, and if there are any acquainted with


us, they will vouch for our masonic standing. The Tyler does so, in the manner already described; and, if they are vouched for by either Master or any brother, they are admitted, the Tyler telling them on what degree the Lodge is opened, besides furnishing them with aprons.

On the evening of a Lodge-meeting, brethren generally get together at an early hour at the Lodge-room, which has been opened and cleaned out by the Tyler. On arrival of the Master, and the hour of meeting, the Master repairs to his seat in the east, puts on his hat, 1 sash, yoke, and apron, with gavel in hand, and says: “Brethren will he properly clothed and in order; officers repair to their stations for the purpose of opening.”

At this announcement the brethren put on their aprons, and seat themselves around the Lodge-room, while the officers invest themselves with their yokes and aprons, and take their stations as represented in Plate , viz.: Senior Warden in the west; Junior Warden in the south; Senior Deacon in front of the Worshipful Master in the east, and a little to his right hand, with a long rod in hand; Junior Deacon at the right hand of the Senior Warden in the west, guarding the inner door of the Lodge, with rod in hand; Secretary at the left of the Worshipful Master, and Treasurer at the right; and, generally, two Stewards on the right and left of the Junior Warden in the south, with rods in hand. After all are thus seated, the Worshipful Master says: “Is the Tyler present? If so, let him approach the east.”

At this command, the Tyler, who is all this time near the outer door of the Lodge, approaches the Worshipful Master’s seat in the east, with yoke and apron on.<img src="" alt="01900" width="302" height="250" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-

W. M.–Brother Tyler, your place in the Lodge?

Tyler–Without the inner door.

W. M.–Your duty there?

Tyler–To keep off all cowans and eavesdroppers, and not to pass or repass any but such as are duly qualified and have the Worshipful Master’s permission.

W. M.–You will receive the implement of your office (handing him the sword). Repair to your post, and be in the active discharge of your duty.

The Tyler retires to the inside of the outer door of the ante-room, and all Lodge-doors are closed after him.

W. M. (gives one rap with his gavel, Junior Deacon rises up)–Brother


[paragraph continues] Junior Deacon, the first and constant care of Masons when convened?

Junior Deacon–To see that the Lodge is duly tyled.

W. M.–You will attend to that part of your duty, and inform the Tyler that we are about to open a Lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons (Fellow Crafts, or Master Masons, as the case may be), and direct him to tyle accordingly.

The Deacon opens the door, and says to the Tyler–Brother Tyler, it is the orders of the Worshipful Master that you tyle this Lodge as an Entered Apprentice (Fellow Crafts, or Master Mason, as the case may be); then closes the door, gives one rap (two, if a Fellow Crafts’, or three, if a Masters’ Lodge), which is responded to by the Tyler.

J. D.–Worshipful Master, the Lodge is tyled.

W. M.–How tyled?

J. D.–By a brother of this degree, without the inner door, invested with the proper implement of his office (the sword). W. M.–His duty there?

J. D.–To keep off all cowans 1 and eavesdroppers; suffer none to pass or repass, except such as are duly qualified, and have the Worshipful Master’s permission. (Sits down.)

W. M. (one rap, Warden rises to his feet.)–Brother Senior Warden, are you sure that all present are Entered Apprentice Masons (Fellow Crafts, or Master Masons? as the case may be).

S. W.–I am sure, Worshipful Master, that all present are Entered Apprentice Masons (or as the case may be).

W. M.–Are you an Entered Apprentice Mason?

S. W.–I am so taken and accepted among all brothers and fellows.

W. M.–Where were you first prepared to be made an Entered Apprentice Mason?

S. W.–In my heart.

W. M.–Where secondly?

S. W.–In a room adjacent to a legally constituted Lodge of such, duly assembled in a place representing the Ground Floor of King Solomon’s Temple.

W. M.–What makes you an Entered Apprentice Mason?

S. W.–My obligation.



W. M: How many constitute a Lodge of Entered Apprentice Masons?

S. W.–Seven or more, consisting of the Worshipful Master, Senior and Junior Wardens, Senior and Junior Deacons, Secretary, and Treasurer.

W. M.–The Junior Deacon’s place?

S. W.–At the right hand of the Senior Warden in the west.

W. M. (two raps with his gavel, when all the officers of the Lodge rise to their feet.)–Your duty there, brother Junior Deacon?

J. D. (makes the sign of an Entered Apprentice Mason, see Fig. 2, )–To carry orders from the Senior Warden in the west to the Junior Warden in the south, and elsewhere around the Lodge, as he may direct, and see that the Lodge is tyled.

W. M.–The Senior Deacon’s place in the Lodge?

J. D.–At the right hand of the Worshipful Master in the east.

W. M.–Your duty there, brother Senior?

S. D.–To carry orders from the Worshipful Master in the east to the Senior Warden in the west, and elsewhere around the Lodge, as he may direct; to introduce and clothe all visiting brethren; to receive and conduct candidates.

W. M.–The Secretary’s place in the Lodge?

S. D.–At the left hand of the Worshipful Master in the east.

W. M.–Your duty, brother Secretary?

Sec.–To observe the Worshipful Master’s will and pleasure, record the proceedings of the Lodge, transmit a copy of the same to the Grand Lodge, if required, receive all moneys paid into the Lodge by the hands of the brethren, pass the same over to the Treasurer, and take his receipt for the same.

W. M.–The Treasurer’s place in the Lodge?

Sec.–At the right hand of the Worshipful Master in the east.

W. M.–Your duty there, brother Treasurer?

Treas.–To receive all moneys paid into the Lodge from the hands of the Secretary, keep a regular and just account of the same, and pay it out by the order of the Worshipful Master and the consent of the Lodge.

W. M.–The Junior Warden’s station in the Lodge?

Treas.–In the south, Worshipful.

W. M.–Your duty there, brother Junior Warden?

J. W.–As the sun in the south, at high meridian, is the beauty and glory of the day, so stands the Junior Warden in the south, the better to observe the time, call the craft from labor to


refreshment, superintend them during the hours thereof, and see that the means of refreshment be not converted into intemperance or excess; and call them on to labor again, that they may have pleasure and profit thereby.

W. M.–The Senior Warden’s station in the Lodge?

J. W.–In the west, Worshipful.

W. M.–Why in the west, brother Senior, and your duty there?

S. W.–To assist the Worshipful Master in opening and closing his Lodge, pay the craft their wages, if any be due, and see that none go away dissatisfied, if in my power to prevent, harmony being the strength of all institutions, more especially of this of ours.

W. M.–The Worshipful Master’s station in the Lodge?

S. W.–In the east, Worshipful.

W. M.–Why in the east, and his duty there?

S. W.–As the sun rises in the east, to open and govern the day, so rises the Worshipful Master in the east (here he gives three raps with his gavel, when all the brethren of the Lodge rise, and himself), to open and govern his Lodge, set the craft to work, and give them proper instructions.

W. M.–Brother Senior Warden, it is my orders that this Lodge be opened on the First Degree of Masonry (or Second, or Third Degree, as the case may be). For the dispatch of business during which time, all private committees, and other improper, unmasonic conduct, tending to destroy the peace of the same while engaged in the lawful pursuits of Masonry, are strictly forbidden, under no less penalty than a majority of the brethren present, acting under the by-laws of this Lodge, may see fit to inflict: this you will communicate to the Junior Warden in the south, and he to the brethren around the Lodge, that they, having due and timely notice, may govern themselves accordingly. 1

S. W. (turning to the Junior Warden in the south.)–Brother Junior Warden, you have heard the orders of the Worshipful Master, as communicated to me from the Worshipful Master in the east. You will take notice, and govern yourself accordingly.)



J. W. (to the Lodge.)–Brethren, you have heard the orders of the Worshipful Master, as communicated to me through the Senior Warden in the west. You will please take notice, and govern yourselves accordingly.

W. M.–Brethren, together on the signs. (The signs of the three degrees are given, if opening on the Third Degree; but if only on the First Degree, Entered Apprentice, the Master would say, Together on the sign, and not signs. The Master always leads off in giving the sign or signs. The Master first makes the “duegard” of the First Degree, representing the position of the hands when taking the oath of an Entered Apprentice Mason, which is called the “duegard” of an Entered Apprentice, viz.: “My left hand supporting the Bible, and my right hand resting




After which the Master makes the sign of an Entered Apprentice Mason, which alludes to the penalty of the Entered Apprentice’s obligation, which is imitated by all the brethren present.

[Explanation of Fig. 2.–Draw the right hand rapidly across the neck, as represented in the cut, and drop the arm to the side.–Remember that the duegards and signs are all made with right angles, horizontals, and perpendiculars, with very slight, but marked pauses between each motion or part of the sign.]

The Master then makes the duegard of a Fellow Craft, which alludes to the position of the hands when taking the oath of a Fellow Craft Mason.

[Explanation of Fig. 3.–The left arm, as far as the elbow, should be held in a horizontal position, and the rest of the arm in a vertical position, forming a square. The right hand detached from the stomach, fingers extending outward.]

After which he gives the sign of a Fellow Craft. which alludes to the penalty of the Fellow Craft obligation.

[.–In making the duegard and sign of the Fellow Craft, or Second Degree, care must be taken to drop the left arm suddenly and with spirit, as soon as the two motions are accomplished.]

Next is the duegard of a Master Mason, which alludes to the position of the hands when taking the oath of a Master Mason, both hands resting on the Holy Bible, square, and compasses.












And then (Fig. 6) the sign of a Master Mason, which alludes to the penalty of the obligation of a Master Mason.

[Explanation of Fig. 6.–In making this sign, draw the right hand (thumb in) across the stomach as low down as the vest, then drop the hand suddenly.]

The last sign given (Fig. 7) is the “grand hailing sign of distress.”

[Explanation of Fig. 7.–Raise the hands as represented in the cut, and drop them with spirit. Repeat this three times.]

The words accompanying this sign in the night, or dark, when the sign cannot be seen, are, viz.: “O Lord my God! is there no help for the widow’s son?” This sign is given by the Master, at the grave of our “Grand Master Hiram Abiff.”

Master gives one rap with his gavel; Senior Warden, one;



[paragraph continues] Junior Warden, one. Master one the second time, which is responded to by the wardens a second time, in the west and south, when the master makes the third gavel sound, which is responded to by the Wardens. These three raps are made, when opening the Lodge on the Third Degree; if opening on the Second, two raps only are used; First Degree, one rap each, first given by the Master, then Senior Warden, lastly Junior Warden. After which the Master takes off his hat, and repeats the following passage of Scripture:–

“Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity! It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron’s beard; that went down to the skirts of his garments; as the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion: for there the Lord commanded the blessing, even life forever more.” Amen!

Responded to by all the brethren present: “Amen! So mote it be!”

W. M.–I now declare this Lodge opened on the First (or, as the case may be) Degree of Masonry. Brother Junior Deacon, you will inform the Tyler. (Deacon opens the Lodge-door, and delivers his message to the Tyler.)

W. M.–Brother Senior Deacon, you will attend at the altar. (Here the Senior Deacon steps to the altar, places the square above the compasses, if opened


on the First Degree, viz.:)


W. M. (gives one sound of the gavel.)–All are seated and ready for business.

If the Lodge is opened on the Third Degree, and at a regular meeting of the Lodge, the following would be the order of business; but as the reader may be a little anxious, besides curious, about the way and manner of raising the Lodge from the First to the Third Degree, the author will suppose the Lodge open on the First Degree, and, it being a regular Lodge-night, and business to transact, the Lodge must be raised to the Third or Masters’ Degree, as no business except that of initiation can be done on the


[paragraph continues] First Degree. The following manner is generally adopted among Masons at the present day, though there are two or three ways.

W. M. (gives one rap with his gavel.)–Brother Senior Warden, are you sure that all present are Master Masons? (or Fellow Crafts, as the case may be.)

S. W.–I am not sure that all present are Master Masons, but will ascertain through my proper officers, and report.

S. W.–Deacons will approach the west (Deacons, both Junior and Senior, repair to the Warden’s station in the west); first the Senior Deacon whispers the password of a Master Mason in the ear of the Junior Deacon (Tubal Cain), and the Senior Deacon whispers the same in the Senior Warden’s ear, when one Deacon passes up one side of the Lodge, and the other the other side, and, as they go, stop at each brother present for the pass-word, which each brother rises up and whispers in the ear of the Deacon (Tubal Cain); if there are any present that cannot give it, the Deacons pass them by, especially if they are lower degree members (Entered Apprentices or Fellow Crafts), and after the Deacons have gone through the entire Lodge, they meet before the Worshipful Master in the east; the Senior Deacon gets the pass again from the Junior Deacon, and passes it up to the Master, and then they return to the Senior Warden in the west, and pass the same up to him in the same way, and take their seats again, as in . The Warden then rises and says–All present are not Master Masons, Worshipful.

W. M.–All below the degree of Master Mason will please retire while we raise the Lodge. The Junior Deacon says to those below Master Mason, “Brothers, please retire,” and he sees that they do so. After they are out, and the door is closed by the Junior Deacon, the Senior Warden says: “All present are Master Masons, Worshipful, and makes the sign of a Master Mason.”

W. M.–If you are satisfied that all present are Master Masons, you will have them come to order as such, reserving yourself for the last.

S. W. (gives three raps with his gavel, when all in the Lodge rise to their feet.)–Brethren, you will come to order as Master Masons.

Brethren all place their hands in the form of a duegard of a Master Mason. (See Fig. 5, ~)

S. W.–In order, Worshipful.

W. M.–Together on the sign, brethren; and makes the sign of a Master Mason (see Fig. 6,), which is imitated by the officers and brethren, and lastly the Senior Warden. The Master gives one rap, Senior Warden one, Junior Warden one, and then


the Master again one rap, followed up by the Wardens, until they have rapped three times each.

W. M.–I now declare this Lodge open on the Third Degree of Masonry. Brother Junior Deacon, inform the Tyler. Brother Senior Deacon attend to the altar. (Raps once, and the officers and brethren take their seats.) (See Note  D, Appendix.)

Order of business as follows, viz.:–

W. M.–Brother Secretary, you will please read the minutes of our last regular communication.

The Secretary reads as follows, viz.:–

MASONIC HALL, New YORK, December 8, A. L. 5860.

A regular communication of St. John’s Lodge, No. 222, of Free and Accepted Masons, was holden at New York, Wednesday, the 10th of November, A. L. 5860.






A. B., Worshipful Master.


Luke Cozzans.

B. C., Senior Warden.

John Hart.

C. D., Junior Warden.

Peter Lewis.

D. E., Treasurer.

George Fox.

E. F., Secretary.

Robert Onion.

F. G., Senior Deacon.

Frank Luckey.

G. H., Junior Deacon.

Samuel Slick.

H. I., Stewards.

Solomon Wise.

I. J.,     “

Henry Wisdom.

K. L., Tyler.

Truman Swift.


Brother James B. Young, of Union Lodge, No. 16, Broadway, New York.

Brother George J. Jones, Rochester Lodge, No. 28, Rochester, New York.

Brother Benjamin Scribble, of Hiram Lodge, No. 37, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Brother Stephen Swift, of Cleveland Lodge, No. 99, Cleveland, Ohio.

Brother Robert Morris, of Lexington Lodge, No. 7, Lexington, Kentucky.

Lodge was opened in due form on the Third Degree of Masonry. The minutes of the last communication of St. John’s Lodge were read and confirmed.

The committee on the petition of John B. Crockerberry, a candidate for initiation, reported favorably, whereupon he was balloted for, and duly elected.


The committee on the application of D. C. Woolevert, a candidate for initiation, reported favorably; whereupon he was balloted for, and the box appearing foul, he was declared rejected.

The committee on the application of William S. Anderson, a candidate for initiation, having reported unfavorably, he was declared rejected, without a ballot.

A petition for initiation from Robert Chase, of Jersey City, accompanied by the usual fee of ten dollars ($10), and recommended by Brothers Hart, Lewis, and Onion, was referred to a committee of investigation, consisting of Brothers Slick, Wise, and Swift.

Brother Samuel Brevoort, an Entered Apprentice, having applied for advancement, was duly elected to the Second Degree; and Brother Thomas Jansen, a Fellow Craft, was, on his application for advancement, duly elected to the Third Degree in Masonry.

Lodge of Master Masons was then closed, and a Lodge of Entered Apprentices opened in due form.

Mr. Charles Fronde, a candidate for initiation, being in waiting, was duly prepared, brought forward, and initiated as an Entered Apprentice Mason in due and ancient form, he paying the further sum of five dollars ($5).

Lodge of Entered Apprentices closed, and a Lodge of Fellow Crafts opened in due form.

Brother Stephen Currie, an Entered Apprentice, being in waiting, was duly prepared, brought forward, and passed to the degree of a Fellow Craft, he paying the further sum of five dollars ($5).

Lodge of Fellow Crafts closed, and a Lodge of Master Masons opened in due form.

Brother John Smith, a Fellow Craft, being in waiting, was duly prepared, brought forward, and raised to the sublime degree of a Master Mason, he paying the further sum of five dollars ($5).

Amount received this evening, as follows:–

Petition of Robert Chase


Fellow Craft Charles Fronde


Fellow Craft Stephen Currie


Master Mason John Smith




All of which was paid over to the Treasurer.


There being no further business, the Lodge was closed in due form and harmony.

SAMUEL SLICK, Secretary.     




Such is the form which has been adopted as the most convenient mode of recording the transactions of a Lodge at the present day.

The minutes of a Lodge should be read at the close of each meeting, that the brethren may suggest any necessary alterations or additions, and then at the beginning of the next regular meeting, that they may be confirmed.

W. M.–Brother Senior Warden, have you any alterations to propose?

S. W. (makes the sign of a Master Mason, see Fig. 6, )–I have none, Worshipful.

W. M.–Have you any, Brother Junior Warden?

J. W. (sign, Fig. 6.)–None, Worshipful.

W. M.–Has any brother around the Lodge any alterations to propose? (None offering) W. M.–Then, brethren, the motion is on the confirmation of the minutes of our last communication; all that are in favor of their confirmation will make it known by the usual sign of a Mason (see Fig 6–raise the right hand); those opposed, by the same sign, which is called the usual sign of a Mason. The question of confirmation is simply a question whether the secretary has faithfully and correctly recorded the transactions of the Lodge.

If it can be satisfactorily shown by any brother that there are any omissions or misentries, this is the time to correct them.


W. M. (reading and referring petitions.)–If the secretary has any petitions on his table, he will report to the Lodge, as follows: Worshipful Master, there are two petitions for membership, which are as follows, viz.:–


To the Worshipful Master, Wardens, and Brethren of St. John’s Lodge, No. 222, of Free and Accepted Masons:

The petition of the subscriber respectfully showeth, that, entertaining a favorable opinion of your ancient institution, he is


desirous of being admitted a member thereof, if found worthy. His place of residence is New York City, his age thirty-eight years, his occupation a bookseller. (Signed) ABNER CRUFF.

Recommended by Brothers Jones, Carson, and Fox.

      NEW YORK, December 1, 1860.

Sec.–The next petition is from Peter Locke, recommended by Brothers Derby and Jackson. Both these petitions are accompanied by the usual fee of ten dollars each.

W. NI.–Brethren, what is your pleasure respecting these petitions of Gruff and Locke?

Brother Hand–I would move that they be received, and a committee of investigation be appointed.

Brother Fast–I second that motion, Worshipful.

W. M.–Brethren, you have heard the motion. All those in favor of the motion, make it known by the usual sign; all to the contrary, the same.

W. M.–The petitions are received, and I would appoint, on the application of Mr. Cruff, Brothers Brevoort, Gore, and Acker-man; and, on the petition of Mr. Locke, Brothers Derby, Hart, and Barnes.


W. M. (receiving reports of committees.)–Brother Secretary, are there any committee reports due on your desk?

Sec.–There are two reports, Worshipful. One on the application of Mr. Robert Granger, and one on the application of Mr. Brady.

W. AL–Are the chairmen of those committees present?

Brother Pepper–Worshipful, as chairman of the committee to whom was referred the application of Mr. Robert Granger, I would say to the Lodge that I have examined into his character and find it good, and, consequently, report on it favorably. I think he will make a good Mason. In his younger days, he was rather wild; but now he is considered very steady, and a good member of society. (Here, sometimes, great and lengthy discussion arises. Some very conscientious and discreet brother thinks more thorough inquiry should have been made respecting Mr. Robert Granger’s early history, the result of which is that he is not balloted for until the next regular meeting. This is no common thing, though.)

W. M.–Is the chairman of the committee to whom was referred the application of Peter Locke present?

Brother Melville–Worshipful, I am chairman of that committee,


and report favorably. He is recommended as one of the best of men.

W. M.–Brethren, what’s your pleasure with the petition of Mr. Locke?

Brother Jones–I move, Worshipful, that the report be received, committee discharged, and the candidate balloted for. Brother Jackson–I second that motion.

W. M.–Brethren, you have heard the motion. All in favor of it, make it known by the usual sign; the contrary, the same.


W. M. (balloting for candidates, or admission.)–Brother Secretary, are there any candidates to be balloted for?

Sec.–There are, Worshipful, two, viz.: Joseph Locker and Reuben Bruce.

W. M.–Brethren, we are about to ballot for two applicants for the First Degree in Masonry. The first is the petition of Mr. Joseph Locker. Any thing for or against this gentleman is now in order. (Here, if any brother has any thing against or for Mr. Locker, he is privileged to speak on the subject.) If nothing is offered, the Master says:

W. M.–If there is nothing to offer, we will proceed to ballot. Brother Senior Deacon, you will prepare the ballot-box.

Senior Deacon takes the ballot-box (which is a small box, five or six inches square, with two drawers in it, and a small hopper in the top, a hole from which passes down into the first drawer, which is empty and shoved in, while the lower one is drawn out and nearly full of both black and white balls), places the box on the altar in the middle of the Lodge, and takes his seat again.

W. M.–Brethren, you will proceed to ballot.

The balloting is done as follows, viz.: Master first; Secretary calls the names, commencing with the Senior Warden down to the Tyler, and, as their names are called, each Mason steps up to the box at the altar, makes the sign of Master Mason to the Master, and then takes from the lower drawer of the ballot-box a ball (white or black, as he sees fit), deposits it in the hopper above, and retires to his seat. So all vote.

W M.–Have all voted? If so, Brother Senior Deacon, you wild close the ballot.

Senior Deacon closes the drawer, and carries the box to the Junior Warden in the south He nulls out the top drawer, looks to see if the drawer is “clear” or not, and then closes it and


hands it to the Deacon, who carries it to the Senior Warden in the west for his examination. As the Deacon leaves the Junior Warden’s station, the Master says to him:

W. M.–Brother Junior Warden, how stands the ballot in the south?

J. W. (makes the sign of a Master Mason, see Fig. 6)–Clear in the south, Worshipful. (If not clear, and there should be a black ball or two, he would say–Not clear in the south, Worshipful.)

By this time the Senior Warden has examined, and the Master inquires of him:

W. M.–Brother Senior Warden, how stands the ballot in the west?

S. W.–Clear (or not) in the west, Worshipful. (Making the sign.)

By this time the Deacon has arrived at the Worshipful Master’s station in the east. He looks in the box, and says:

W. M.–And clear (or not clear) in the east. Brethren, you have elected (or not) Mr. Joseph Locker to the First Degree in Masonry.

The other candidate is balloted for in the same manner.


W. M. (conferring Degrees.)–Brother Junior Deacon, you will ascertain whether there are any candidates in waiting, and for what Degree, and report at once.

The Junior Deacon inquires of the Tyler and brethren generally, and reports some one will name a candidate who has been previously balloted for, who will probably be waiting in the ante-room.

J. D.–There is one, or two (as the ease may be) now in waiting for the First Degree, Mr. Peter Gabe and Mr. John Milke.

W. M.–Brethren, there seems to be a good deal of business on hand this evening; but my business engagements are such as to render it impossible for me to be present very late, consequently we will confer the Degree upon Mr. Gabe only, and will call a special communication next week to attend to Mr. Milke’s wants. You will inform Mr. Milke, Brother Junior Deacon, of our decision, and not keep him any longer in waiting. You will also say to Mr. Gabe, that as soon as we finish the regular business of the Lodge, he can have the First Degree conferred on him.

Junior Deacon does his duty.



W. M. (considering unfinished business.)–No unfinished business.


W. M. (disposing of such other business as may lawfully come before the Lodge.)–Brethren, if there is no further business before this Lodge of Master Masons, we will proceed to close the same, and open an Entered Apprentices’ Lodge, for the purpose of initiation.

Here Lodges differ, in the mode of lowering from a Masters’ to an Entered Apprentices’ Lodge. Some close entirely, and open on the First; but we will adopt a short way, that Lodges have at the present day.

W. M.–Brother Senior Warden, are you sure all present are Entered Apprentice Masons?

S. W.–I am sure, Worshipful, all present are Entered Apprentice Masons.

W. M.–If you are sure all present are Entered Apprentice Masons, you will have them come to order as such, reserving yourself for the last.

S. W. (gives three raps with his gavel, all rise to their feet.)–Brethren, you will come to order as Entered Apprentice Masons.

The members place their hands in the position of a duegard of an Entered Apprentice. (See Plate1.) When the Master makes “the sign, by drawing his hand across his throat, all follow suit; Worshipful then makes one rap with the gavel, Senior Warden one, and the Junior Warden one.

W. M.–I now declare this Lodge of Master Masons closed, and an Entered Apprentice in its stead. Brother Junior Deacon, inform the Tyler; Brother Senior Deacon, attend at the altar (which is placing both points of the compasses under the square). (Worshipful Master gives one rap, which seats the whole Lodge.) Brother Junior Deacon, you will take with you the necessary assistants (the two Stewards), repair to the ante-room, where there is a candidate in waiting (Mr. Gabe, for the First Degree in Masonry), and, when duly prepared, you will make it known by the usual sign (one rap).

The Junior Deacon and his assistants retire to the ante-room, but before they leave the Lodge-room they step to the altar, and Blake the sign of the First Degree to the Master. It is the duty of the Secretary to go out into the ante-room with them, and


before the candidate is required to strip, the Secretary gets his assent to the following interrogations, viz. (Monitorial):–

Do you seriously declare, upon your honor, that, unbiassed by friends, and uninfluenced by mercenary motives, you freely and voluntarily offer yourself a candidate for the mysteries of Masonry?

Yes (or, I do).

Do you seriously declare, upon your honor, that you are prompted to solicit the privileges of Masonry by a favorable opinion of the institution, a desire for knowledge, and a sincere wish of being serviceable to your fellow-creatures?


Do you seriously declare, upon your honor, that you will con-form to all the ancient established usages of the Order?


The Secretary returns to the Lodge, and reports that the candidate has given his assent to the interrogations.


The candidate is now requested to strip.

J. D.–Mr. Gabe, you will take oft your coat, shoes, and stockings, also your vest and cravat; and now your pantaloons; here is a pair of drawers for you. You will now slip your left arm out of your shirt-sleeve, and put it through the bosom of your shirt, that your arm and breast may be naked. The Deacon now ties a handkerchief or hoodwink over his eyes, places a slipper on his right foot, and after-wards puts a rope, called a cable-tow, once round his neck, letting it drag behind. 1

The figure is a representation of the candidate duly and truly prepared for the First Degree in Masonry.

The Junior Deacon now takes the candidate by the arm and leads him forward to the door of the Lodge, and gives three distinct knocks, when the Senior Deacon. on the inside, rises to his feet, makes the sign of an Entered Apprentice to the Master, and says:

S. D.–Worshipful Master, there is an alarm at the inner door of our Lodge. W. M.–You will attend to the alarm,



and ascertain the cause. (The Deacon repairs to the door, gives three distinct knocks, and then opens it.)

S. D.–Who comes here?

J. D. (who always responds for the candidate.)–Mr. Peter Gabe, who has long been in darkness, and now seeks to be brought to light, and to receive a part in the rights and benefits of this worshipful Lodge, erected to God, and dedicated to the holy Sts. John, as all brothers and fellows have clone before.

S. D.–Mr. Gabe, is it of your own free-will and accord?

Mr. G.–It is.

S. D.–Brother Junior Deacon, is he worthy, and well qualified?

J. D.–He is.

S. D.–Duly and truly prepared?

J. D.–He is.

S. D.–Of lawful age, and properly vouched for?

J. D.–He is.

S. D.–By what further right or benefit does he expect to gain admission?

J. D.–By being a man, free born, of good repute, and well recommended.

S. D.–Is he such?

J. D.–He is.

S. D.–Since he is in possession of all these necessary qualifications, you will wait with patience until the Worshipful Master is informed of his request, and his answer returned.

Deacon closes the door and repairs to the altar before the Worshipful Master, raps once on the floor with his rod, which is


responded to by the Master with his gavel, when the same thing is passed through with as at the door, and the Master says:

W. M.–Let him enter, and be received in due form.

The Senior Deacon takes the compasses from off the altar, re-pairs to the door, opens it, and says:

S. D.–Let him enter, and be received in due form.

Senior Deacon steps back, while the Junior Deacon, with candidate, enters the Lodge, followed by the two Stewards. As they advance they are stopped by the Senior Deacon, who presents one point of the compasses to the candidate’s naked left breast, and says:

S. D.–Mr. Gabe, on entering this Lodge for the first time, I receive you on the point of a sharp instrument pressing your naked left breast, which is to teach you, as it is a torture to your flesh, so should the recollection of it ever be to your mind and conscience, should you attempt to reveal the secrets of Masonry unlawfully.

The Junior Deacon now leaves the candidate in the hands of the Senior Deacon, and takes his seat at the right hand of the Senior Warden in the west; while the Senior Deacon, followed by the two Stewards, proceeds to travel once regularly around the Lodge-room, as follows, viz.: Senior Deacon takes the candidate by the right arm, advances a step or two, when the Master gives one rap with his gavel. (Deacon and candidate stop.)

W. M.–Let no one enter on so important a duty without first invoking the blessing of the Deity. Brother Senior Deacon, you will conduct the candidate to the centre of the Lodge, and cause him to kneel for the benefit of prayer.

S. D.–Mr. Gabe, you will kneel. (Candidate kneels.)

Worshipful Master now leaves his seat in the east, approaches candidate, kneels by his side, and repeats the following prayer, viz.:–

W. M.–Vouchsafe Thine aid, Almighty Father of the Universe, to this our present convention; and grant that this candidate for Masonry may dedicate and devote his life to Thy service, and become a true and faithful brother among us! Endue him with a competency of Thy divine wisdom, that, by the secrets of our art, he may be better enabled to display the beauties of brotherly love, relief, and truth, to the honor of Thy Holy Name. Amen.

Responded to by all, “So mote it be.”

W. M. (rising to his feet, taking candidate by the right hand, placing his left on his head.)–Mr. “Gabe” (sometimes Masters say, “Stranger!”), in whom do you put your trust?

Candidate (prompted.)–In God. 1



W. M.–Since in God you put your trust, your faith is well founded. Arise (assists candidate to rise), follow your conductor and fear no danger.

The Master retires to his seat in the east, and while the conductor (S. D.) is attending the candidate once around the Lodge-room, he repeats the following passage:–

“Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!” &c., &c. (See opening, or Monitor’s.) The reading is so timed as to be concluded when they have passed once around the Lodge-room to the Junior Warden’s station in the south; as they pass each  1


officer’s station, east, south, and west, they give one sound with their gavels, viz.: first the Master, one (•): J. W., one (•); S. W., one (•); which has a good effect on the candidate, the sounds being near his ears as he passes by (his conductor generally passing close up). Having passed once around the Lodge, they halt at the Junior Warden’s station in the south.


J. W. (gives one rap; conductor one.)–Who comes here?

Conductor (S. D.)–Mr. Peter Gabe. who has long been in darkness, and now seeks to be brought to light, and to receive a part in the rights and benefits of this Worshipful Lodge, erected to God, and dedicated to the holy St. John, as all brothers and fellows have done before.

J. W.–Mr. Gabe, is it of your own free will and accord?

Mr. Gabe–It is.

J. W.–Brother Senior Deacon, is he worthy and well qualified? S. D.–He is.

J. Ws–Duly and truly prepared? S. D.–Re is.



J. W.–Of lawful age, and properly vouched for?

S. D.–He is.

J. W.–By what further right or benefit does he expect to gain admission?

S. D.–By being a man, free born, of good repute, and well recommended.

J. W.–Since he is in possession of all these necessary qualifications, I will suffer him to pass on to the Senior Warden’s station in the west.

Senior Warden, disposing of him in the same manner as the Junior Warden, suffers him to pass on to the Worshipful Master in the east, who makes the same inquiries as did the Wardens in the south and west, after which the Master says:

W. M.–From whence come you, and whither are you travelling?

S. D.–From the west, and travelling toward the east.

W. M.–Why leave you the west and travel toward the east?

S. D.–In search of light.

W. M.–Since light is the object of your search, you will reconduct the candidate, and place him in charge of the Senior Warden in the west, with my orders that he teach this candidate to approach the east, the place of light, by advancing with one upright, regular step to the first stop, the heel of his right placed in the hollow of his left foot, his body erect at the altar (see Fig. 14), before the Worshipful Master in the east.

Senior Deacon conducts candidate back to the Senior Warden in the west, and says:

S. D.–Brother Senior Warden, it is the orders of the Worshipful Master, that you teach this candidate to approach the east, the place of light, by advancing on one regular upright step to the first stop; the heel of his right foot in the hollow of his left (see Fig. 14, ), his body erect at the altar before the Worshipful Master in the east.

Senior Warden leaves his seat, comes down to the candidate, faces him towards the Worshipful Master, and requests him to step off with his left foot, bringing the heel of his right in the hollow of his left (see step 1, Fig. 14–before the candidate is requested to do this, he is led by the Warden within one pace of the altar). Senior Warden reports to the Worshipful Master.

S. W.–The candidate is in order, and awaits your further will and pleasure.


The Master now leaves his seat in the east, and, approaching (in front of the altar) the candidate, says:

W. M.–Mr. Gabe, before you can be permitted to advance any farther in Masonry, it becomes my duty to inform you, that you must take upon yourself a solemn oath or obligation, appertaining to this degree, which I, as Master of this Lodge, assure you will not materially interfere with the duty that you owe to your God, yourself, family, country, or neighbor. Are you willing to take such an oath?

Candidate–I am.

W. M.–Brother Senior Warden, you will place the candidate in due form, which is by kneeling on his naked left knee, his right forming the angle of a square, his left hand supporting the Holy Bible, square, and compasses, his right hand resting thereon.

The Warden now places, or causes the candidate to be placed, in the position commanded by the Worshipful Master, as shown in Figure 8.

W. M.–Mr. Gabe, you are now in position for taking upon



(left to right: Master. Altar. Candidate. Conductor.)

“Kneeling on my naked left knee, my right forming a square; my left supporting the Holy Bible, square, and compasses, my right resting thereon



yourself the solemn oath of an Entered Apprentice Mason, and, if you have no objections still, you will say I, and repeat your name after me.

Master gives one rap with his gavel which is the signal for all present to assemble around the altar.


I, Peter Gabe, of my own free will and accord, in the presence of Almighty God, and this Worshipful Lodge, erected to Him, and dedicated to the holy Sts. John, 1 do hereby and hereon (Master presses his gavel on candidate’s knuckles) most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, that I will always hail, 2 ever conceal, and never reveal, any of the arts, parts, or points of the hidden mysteries of Ancient Free Masonry, which may have been, or hereafter shall be, at this time, or any future period, communicated to me, as such, to any person or persons whomsoever, except it be to a true and lawful brother Mason, or in a regularly constituted Lodge of Masons; nor unto him or them until, by strict trial, due examination, or lawful information, I shall have found him, or them, as lawfully entitled to the same as I am myself. I furthermore promise and swear that I will not print, paint, stamp, stain, cut, carve, mark, or engrave them, or cause the same to be done, on any thing movable or immovable, capable of receiving the least impression of a word, syllable, letter, or character, whereby the same may become legible or intelligible to any person under the canopy of heaven, and the secrets of Masonry thereby unlawfully obtained through my unworthiness.

All this I most solemnly, sincerely promise and swear, with a firm and steadfast resolution to perform the same, without any mental reservation or secret evasion of mind whatever, binding



myself under no less penalty than that of having my throat cut across, 1 my tongue torn out by its roots, and my body buried in the rough sands of the sea, at low-water mark, 2 where the tide ebbs and flows twice in twenty-four hours, should I ever knowingly violate this my Entered Apprentice obligation. So help me God, and keep me steadfast in the due performance of the same.

W. M.–In token of your sincerity, you will now detach your hands, and kiss the book on which your hands rest, which is the Holy Bible.

After the candidate has kissed the Bible, he is asked by the Master:

W. M.–In your present condition, what do you most desire? Candidate (prompted.)–Light.

W. M.–Brethren, you will stretch forth your hands, and assist me in bringing our newly made brother to light.

Here the brethren surrounding the altar place their hands in form of duegard of an Entered Apprenticed Mason (see Fig. 1,).

W. M.–“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the waters. And God said, Let there be light, and there was light.” (In some Lodges, at the last word, “light,” the brethren stamp their feet and clap their hands once; but this is nearly done away with now-a-days. Too much “Morganry” about it, as it is styled by Masons.)

Worshipful Master now gives one rap which is the signal for all to be seated but himself, he remaining at the altar. I should remark here, that at the word “light,” the conductor





strips off the hoodwink from the candidate’s eyes, but keeps him yet kneeling at the altar.

W. M.–Brother Senior Deacon, I will now thank you to remove the cable-tow. (Rope is taken off candidate’s neck.)

Some Masters say–As we now hold the brother by a stronger tie.

W. M.–My brother, on being brought to light in this degree, you discover both points of the compasses hid by the square, which is to signify that you are yet in darkness as respects Masonry, you having only received the degree of an Entered Apprentice. You also discover the three great lights of Masonry, by the help of the three lesser. The three great lights in Masonry are the Holy Bible, square, and compasses, which are thus explained: the Holy Bible is the rule and guide of our faith and practice; the square, to square our actions; the compasses, to circumscribe and keep us within bounds with all mankind, but more especially with a brother Mason. The three lesser lights are the three burning tapers which you see placed in a triangular form about this altar. They represent the sun, moon, and Master of the Lodge; and as the sun rules the day, and the moon governs the night, so ought the Worshipful Master to endeavor to rule and govern his Lodge, with equal regularity.

W. M. (taking a step back from the altar.)–You next discover me as the Master of this Lodge, approaching you from the east, under the duegard, sign, and step of an Entered Apprentice Mason (Master making the duegard, sign, and step, as represented and explained in Figs. 1, 2, and 14, ), and, in

FIG. 9 THE GRIP OF AN ENTERED APPRENTICE. FIG. 9 THE GRIP OF AN ENTERED APPRENTICE.<img src="" alt="03600" width="322" height="125" class="alignnone size-full wp-image-

token of my brotherly love and favor, present you my right hand (takes the candidate by the right hand, who is yet kneeling at the altar), and with it the grip and word of an Entered Apprentice. (W. M. to candidate.) Grip me, brother, as I grip you. As you are yet uninformed, your conductor will answer for you. (Senior Deacon.)


W. M. (looking the Deacon in the eye, while holding candidate by the right hand.)–I hail.

S. D.–I conceal.

W. M.–What do you conceal?

S. D.–All the secrets of Masons, in Masons, to which this


[paragraph continues] (here presses his thumb-nail on the joint) token alludes.

W. M.–What is that?

S. D.–A grip.

W. M.–Of what?

S. D.–Of an Entered Apprentice Mason.

W. M.–Has it a name?

S. D.–It has.

W. M.–Will you give it me?

S. D.–I did not so receive it; neither can I so impart it.

W. M.–How will you dispose of it?

S. D.–I will letter it, or halve it.

W. M.–Letter it, and begin.

S. D.–No, you begin.

W. M.–Begin you.

S. D.–A.

W. M.–B.

S. D.–O.

W. M.–Z.

S. D.–Bo.

W. M.–Az.

S. D. (pronouncing)–Boaz. (The old way of spelling this word, as represented by Morgan, Craft, Allyn, Richardson, and Barnard, was by syllabling it. See those books.)

W. M. (helping candidate to rise from the altar, by the right hand.)–Rise, my brother, and salute the Junior and Senior Wardens as an obligated Entered Apprentice.

Here Lodges differ; some only pass candidate once around the room, and, as he passes the officers’ stations, he gives the duegard and sign of an Entered Apprentice; while other Lodges require him to halt at the Wardens’ stations, and pass through with the following ceremony, viz.: The Deacon takes candidate by the right arm, and passes around the altar to the Junior Warden’s station in the south, stops, gives one rap with his rod on the floor, which is responded to by the Junior Warden with his gavel, once.

J. W.–Who comes here?

S. D.–An obligated Entered Apprentice.

J. W.–How shall I know him to be such?

S. D.–By signs and tokens.

J. W–What are signs?

S. D.–Right angles, horizontals, and perpendiculars ( , , ).

J. W.–What are tokens?

S. D.–Certain friendly or brotherly grips, by which one Mason may know another, in the dark as well as in the light,


J. W.–Give me a sign.

Senior Deacon gives the duegard, and directs the candidate to do likewise. (See duegard, Fig. 1, .)

J. W.–What is that?

S. D.–A duegard.

J. W.–Has it an allusion?

S. D.–It has; it alludes to the manner in which my hands were placed when I took upon myself the obligation of an Entered Apprentice Mason.

J. W.–Have you any further sign?

S. D.–I have. (Makes the sign of an Entered Apprentice. See Fig. 2, p. 17.)

J W.–What is that?

S. D.–Sign of an Entered Apprentice Mason.

J. W.–Has it an allusion?

S. D.–It has, to the penalty of my obligation. 1

J. W.–Have you any further sign?

S. D.–I have not; but I have a token.

J. W.–Advance your token.

Senior Deacon makes candidate take the Junior Warden by the right hand.

J. W.–I hail.

S. D.–I conceal.

J. W.–What do you conceal?

S. D.–All the secrets of Masons, in Masons, to which this (here presses his thumb-nail on the joint) token alludes.

J. W.–What is that?

S. D.–A grip.

J. W–Of what?

S. D.- Of an Entered Apprentice Mason.

J. W.–Has it a name?

S. D.–It has.

J. W.–Will you give it me?

S. D.–I did not so receive it, neither will I so impart it.

J. W.–How will you dispose of it?

S. D.–I will letter it, or halve it,

J. W.–Letter it, and begin.

S. D.–No, you begin.

J. W.–Begin you.



S. D.–A.

J. W.–B.

S. D–O.

J. W.–Z.

S. D.–Bo.

J. W–Az.

S. D. (pronounces)–Boaz. In spelling this word–Boaz–always begin with the letter “A.” This is one way that Masons detect impostors, i.e., Morgan or book Masons.–See Note  E, Appendix.)

J. W.–I am satisfied, and will suffer you to pass on to the Senior Warden in the west for his examination.

The conductor and candidate pass on to the Senior Warden’s station, where the same ceremony is gone through with, and suffers them to pass on to the Worshipful Master in the east. As they leave the west, and are nearly to the Master’s station in the east, he gives one rap with his gavel, when they halt. The Master takes a white linen apron (sometimes a lambskin, which is kept for such purposes), approaches the candidate, hands it to him rolled up, and says:

W. M.–Brother, I now present you with a lambskin or white


apron, which is an emblem of innocence and the badge of a Mason, more ancient than the Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle, and, when worthily worn, more honorable than the Star and Garter, or any other order that can be conferred on you at this time, or any future period, by kings, princes, and potentates, or any other persons, except it be by Masons. I trust that you will wear it with equal pleasure to yourself and honor to the fraternity. You will carry it to the Senior Warden in the west, who will teach you how to wear it as an Entered Apprentice.


Deacon conducts candidate back to the west, and says:

S. D.–Brother Senior Warden, it is the order of the Worshipful Master, that you teach this new-made brother how to wear his apron as an Entered Apprentice.

The Senior Warden takes the apron and ties it on the candidate, with the flap turned up, remarking to the candidate as he does so: This is the way, Brother Gabe, that Entered Apprentices wore their aprons at the building of King Solomon’s Temple, and so you will wear yours until further advanced. Senior Deacon now reconducts the candidate to the Worshipful Master in the east.


W. M.–Brother Gabe, agreeably to an ancient custom, adopted among Masons, it is necessary that you should be requested to deposit something of a metallic kind or nature, not for its intrinsic valuation, but that it may be laid up among the relics in the archives of this Lodge, as a memento that you were herein made a Mason. Anything, brother that you may have about you, of a metallic nature, will be thankfully received–a button, pin, five or ten cent piece–anything, my brother.

Candidate feels for something–becomes quite confused. On examination, or reflection, finds himself very destitute, not being able to contribute one pin, his conductor having been careful to take every thing from him, in the ante-room, before he entered the Lodge;–finally stammers out that he has nothing of the kind with him, but if permitted to pass out into the ante-room, where his clothes are, he will contribute. This the Master refuses to do, of course, which only helps confuse the candidate more and more. After the Master has kept the candidate in this suspense some moments, he says:

W. M.–Brother Gabe, you are indeed an object of charity–almost naked, not one cent, no, not even a button or pin to bestow on this Lodge. Let this ever have, my brother, a lasting effect on your mind and conscience; and remember, should you ever see a friend, but more especially a brother, in a like destitute condition, you will contribute as liberally to his support and relief as his necessities may seem to demand and your ability permit, without any material injury to yourself or family. 1

W. M.–Brother Senior Deacon, you will now reconduct this candidate to the place from whence he came, and reinvest him with that which he has been divested of, and return him to the Lodge for further instruction.

Senior Deacon takes candidate by the arm, leads him to the centre of the Lodge, at the altar before the Worshipful Master in the east, makes duegard and sign of an Entered Apprentice, and then retires to the ante-room.

After candidate is clothed, the deacon ties on his apron, and, returning to the Lodge, conducts him to the Worshipful Master in the east, who orders the Deacon to place him in the northeast corner of the Lodge, which is at the Master’s right.

W. M.–Brother Gabe, you now stand in the northeast corner of this Lodge, as the youngest Entered Apprentice, an upright man and Mason, and I give it to you strictly in charge as such ever to walk and act. (Some Masters preach great sermons to candidate on this occasion.) Brother, as you are clothed as an



[paragraph continues] Entered Apprentice, it is necessary you should have the working-tools of an Entered Apprentice, which are the twenty-four-inch gauge and common gavel.

W. M.–The twenty-four-inch gauge is an instrument made use of by operative masons to measure and lay out their work; but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of dividing our time. It being divided into twenty-four equal parts, is emblematical of the twenty-four hours of the day which we are taught to divide

the twenty-four inch gauge

into three parts, whereby we find a portion for the service of God and the relief of a distressed worthy brother, a portion for our usual avocations, and a portion for refreshment and sleep.

W. M.–The common gavel is an instrument made use of by operative masons to break off the superfluous corners of rough stones, the better to fit them

the gavel

for the builder’s use; but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of divesting our minds and consciences of all the vices and superfluities of life, thereby fitting us, as living stones, for that spiritual building, that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.


W. M.–Brother Gabe, there is a lecture to this Degree, consisting of three sections, which you will at your earliest opportunity commit to memory. 1 The first section treats of the manner of your initiation; the second section, the reasons wily, &c.; the third section, the form, furniture, lights, &c., &c. This lecture commences as follows:


Q. From whence came you? (Some say, As an Entered Apprentice Mason.)



A. From a Lodge of the Sts. John of Jerusalem.

Q. What came you here to do?

A. To learn to subdue my passions and improve myself in Masonry.

Q. Then I presume you are a Mason?

A. I am so taken and accepted among all brothers and fellows. (See Note  F, Appendix.)

Q. How do you know yourself to be a Mason?

A. By having been often tried, never denied, and willing to be tried again.

Q. How shall I know you to be a Mason?

A. By certain signs, a token, a word, and the perfect points of my entrance.

Q. What are signs?

A. Right angles, horizontals, and perpendiculars ( , , ).

Q. What are tokens?

A. Certain friendly or brotherly grips, by which one Mason may know another in the dark as well as in the light. Q. Give me a sign.

Here give sign of Entered Apprentice. (See Fig 2, .)

Q. Has that an allusion?

A. It has; to the penalty of my obligation.

Q. Give me a token.

Here give sign of Entered Apprentice. (See Fig. 2,.)

Q. I hail.

A. I conceal.

Q. What do you conceal?

A. All the secrets of Masons, in Masons, to which this (here press with thumb-nail the first joint hard) token alludes.

Q. What is that?

A. A grip.

Q. Of what?

A. Of an Entered Apprentice Mason.

Q. Has it a name?

A. It has.

Q. Will you give it me?

A. I did not so receive it, neither will I so impart it.

Q. How will you dispose of it?

A. I will letter it or halve it.

Q. Letter it, and begin.

A. No, you begin.

Q. Begin you. (Some say, No, you begin.)

A. A.

Q. B.

A. O.


Q. Z.

A. Bo.

Q. Az.

A. Boaz.

Q. Where were you first prepared to be made a Mason?

A. In my heart.

Q. Where were you next prepared?

A. In a room adjacent to a regularly constituted Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons. (

Q. How were you prepared?

A. By being divested of all metals, neither naked nor clothed; barefoot nor shod, hoodwinked, with a cable-tow around my neck; in which condition I was conducted to the door of a Lodge by a friend, whom I afterward found to be a brother. 1

Q. How did you know it to be a door, being hoodwinked?

A. By first meeting with resistance, afterward gaining admission.

Q. How gained you admission?

A. By three distinct knocks.

Q. What were said to you from within?

A. Who comes here?

Q. Your answer?

A. Mr ——, who has long been in darkness, and now seeks to be brought to light, and to receive a part in the rights and benefits of this worshipful Lodge, erected to God, and dedicated to the holy Ste. John, as all brothers and fellows have done before.

Q. What were you then asked?

A. If it was of my own free will and accord; if I was worthy and well qualified; duly and truly prepared; of lawful age and properly vouched for. All of which being answered in the affirmative, I was asked by what further right or benefit I expected to gain admission.

Q. Your answer?

A. By being a man, free born, of good repute, and well recommended.

Q. What followed?

A. I was directed to wait with patience until the Worshipful Master should be informed of my request, and his answer returned.

Q. What answer did he return?



A. Let him enter, and be received in due form.

Q. How were you received?

A. On the point of a sharp instrument pressing my naked left breast.

Q. How were you then disposed of?

A. I was conducted to the centre of the Lodge, caused to kneel, and attend at prayer.

Q. After attending at prayer, what were you then asked?

A. In whom I put my trust.

Q. Your answer?

A. In God.

Q. What followed?

A. My trust being in God, I was taken by the right hand, and informed that my faith was well founded; ordered to arise, follow my conductor, and fear no danger.

Q. Where did you follow your conductor?

A. Once around the Lodge, to the Junior Warden’s station in the south, where the same questions and like answers were asked and returned as at the door. (See Note  H, Appendix.)

Q. How did the Junior Warden dispose of you?

A. He bid me be conducted to the Senior Warden in the west, and he to the Worshipful Master in the east, where the same questions were asked and like answers returned as before.

Q. How did the Worshipful Master dispose of you?

A. He ordered me to be reconducted to the Senior Warden in the west, who taught me to approach the east by one upright, regular step, my feet forming an angle of an oblong square, my body erect, at the altar before the Worshipful Master in the east. 1

Q. What did the Worshipful Master then do with you?

A. He made me a Mason in due form.

Q. What was that due form?

A. Kneeling on my naked left knee, my right forming a square, my left hand supporting the Holy Bible, square, and compasses, my right resting thereon, in which due form I took the solemn oath of an Entered Apprentice, which is as follows, viz.; (some Lodges require the obligation repeated, but not as a general thing).

Q. After the obligation, what were you then asked?



A. What I most desired.

Q. Your answer?

A. Light.

Q. Did you receive light?

A. I did, by the order of the Worshipful Master and the assistance of the brethren.

Q. On being brought to light, what did you first discover?

A. The three great lights in Masonry, by the help of the three lesser.

Q. What are the three great lights in Masonry?

A. The Holy Bible, square, and compasses.

Q. What are their Masonic use?

A. The Holy Bible is the rule and guide to our faith and practice; the square, to square our actions; and the compasses, to circumscribe and keep us within bounds with all mankind, but more especially with a brother Mason.

Q. What are the three lesser lights?

A. Three burning tapers, in a triangular position.

Q. What do they represent?

A. The sun, moon, and Master of the Lodge.

Q. Why so?

A. Because, as the sun rules the day, and the moon governs the night, so ought the Worshipful Master to endeavor to rule and govern his Lodge, with equal regularity.

Q. What did you then discover?

A. The Worshipful Master approaching me from the east, under the duegard and sign of an Entered Apprentice; who, in token of his brotherly love and favor, presented me with his right hand, and with it the grip and word of an Entered Apprentice and ordered me to arise and salute the Junior and Senior Wardens as an Entered Apprentice.

Q. After saluting the Wardens, what did you then discover?

A. The Worshipful Master approaching me from the east a second time, who presented me with a lambskin or white linen apron which he informed me was an emblem of innocence and the badge of a Mason; that it had been worn by kings, princes, and potentates of the earth; that it was more ancient than the Golden Fleece or Roman Eagle; more honorable than the Star or Garter, or any other order that could be conferred on me at that or any time thereafter by king, prince, potentate, or any other person, except he be a Mason; and hoped that I would wear it with equal Praise to myself and honor to the fraternity; and ordered me to carry it to the Senior Warden in the west, who taught me how to wear it as an Entered Apprentice.

Q. How should an Entered Apprentice wear his apron?


A. With the flap turned up.

Q. After being taught to wear your apron as an Entered Apprentice, what were you then informed?

A. That, agreeably to an ancient custom, adopted in every regulated and well-governed Lodge it was necessary that I should be requested to deposit something of a metallic kind, not from its intrinsic valuation, but that it might be laid up, among the relics in the archives of the Lodge, as a memorial that I was therein made a Mason; but, on strict examination, I found myself entirely destitute.

Q. How were you then disposed of?

A. I was ordered to be returned to the place from whence I came, and reinvested of what I had been divested of, and returned to the Lodge for further instructions.

Q. On your return to the Lodge, where were you placed, as the youngest Entered Apprentice?

A. In the northeast corner, my feet forming a right angle, my body erect, at the right hand of the Worshipful Master in the east, an upright man and Mason, and it was given me strictly in charge ever to walk and act as such.

Q. What did the Worshipful Master then present you with?

A. The working-tools of an Entered Apprentice Mason, which are the twenty-four-inch gauge and common gavel.

Q. What is their use?

A. The twenty-four-inch gauge is an instrument made use of by operative masons, to measure and lay out their work; but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of dividing our time. It being divided into twenty-four equal parts is emblematical of the twenty-four hours of the day, which we are taught to divide into three parts, whereby we find a portion for the service of God and the relief of a distressed worthy brother, a portion for our usual avocations, and a portion for refreshment and sleep.

The common gavel is an instrument made use of by operative masons, to break off the superfluous corners of rough stones, the better to fit them for the builder’s use; but we, as Free and Accepted Masons, are taught to make use of it for the more noble and glorious purpose of divesting our minds and consciences of all the vices and superfluities of life, thereby fitting us, as living stones of that spiritual building, that house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens.

This generally ends the first section of the lecture as given in Lodges at the present day; but as some Lodges persist still in keeping up the old lecture as revealed by William Morgan, in


[paragraph continues] 1826, and by Bernard, Allyn, Richardson, and others, the author will give it, that it may go to the world a complete Masonic lecture.

Q. What were you next presented with?

A. A new name.

Q. What was that?

A. Caution.

Q. What does it teach?

A. It teaches me, as I was barely instructed in the rudiments of Masonry, that I should be cautious over all my words and actions, especially when before its enemies.

Q. What were you next presented with?

A. Three precious jewels.

Q. What were they?

A. A listening ear, a silent tongue, and a faithful heart.

Q. What do they teach?

A. A listening ear teaches me to listen to the instructions of the Worshipful Master, but more especially to the cries of a worthy distressed brother. A silent tongue teaches me to be silent in the Lodge, that the peace and harmony thereof may not be disturbed, but more especially before the enemies of Masonry. A faithful heart, that I should be faithful and keep and conceal the secrets of Masonry and those of a brother when delivered to me in charge as such, that they may remain as secure and inviolable in my breast as in his own, before being communicated to me.

Q. What were you next presented with?

A. The Grand Master’s check-word.

Q. What was that?

A. Truth.

Q. How explained?

A. Truth is a divine attribute, and the foundation of every virtue. To be good and true are the first lessons we are taught in Masonry. On this theme we contemplate, and by its dictates endeavor to regulate our conduct; hence while influenced by this principle, hypocrisy and deceit are unknown among us, sincerity and plain-dealing distinguish us, and the heart and tongue join in promoting each other’s welfare, and rejoicing in each other’s prosperity.

With a few other interrogations and answers the old lecture ends. These interrogations and answers are embodied in the new-fangled lecture as already given; they relate only to the demand for something of a metallic kind, reinvestment of candidate’s clothing, northeast corner of the Lodge, &c., &c.



Q. Why were you divested of all metals when made a Mason?

A. For the reason, first, that I should carry nothing offensive or defensive into the Lodge; second, at the building of King Solomon’s Temple, there was not heard the sound of an axe, hammer, or any tool of iron.

Q. How could a building of that stupendous magnitude be erected without the aid of some iron tool?

A. Because the stones were hewed, squared, and numbered at the quarries where they were raised; the trees felled and prepared in the forests of Lebanon, carried by sea in floats to Joppa, and from thence by land to Jerusalem, where they were set up with wooden mauls, prepared for that purpose; and, when the building was completed, its several parts fitted with such exact nicety, that it had more the resemblance of the handy workmanship of the Supreme Architect of the universe than of that of human hands.

Q. Why were you neither naked nor clothed?

A. Because Masonry regards no one for his worldly wealth or honors; it is the internal, and not the external qualifications of a man that should recommend him to be made a Mason.

Q. Why were you neither barefoot nor shod?

A. It was in conformity to an ancient Israelitish custom: we read in the book of Ruth, that it was their manner of changing and redeeming; and to confirm all things, a Mason plucked off his shoe and gave it to his neighbor, and that was testimony in Israel. This then we do in confirmation of a token, and as a pledge of our fidelity; thereby signifying that we will renounce our own will in all things, and become obedient to the laws of our ancient institution. 1

Q. Why were you hoodwinked, and a cable-tow put about your neck?

A. For the reason, first, as I was then in darkness, 2 so I should keep the whole world in darkness so far as it related to the secrets of Free-Masonry. Secondly: in case I had not submitted




to the manner and mode of my initiation, that I might have been led out of the Lodge, without seeing the form and beauty thereof.

Q. Why were you caused to give three distinct knocks?

A. To alarm the Lodge, and inform the Worshipful Master that I was prepared for Masonry, and, in accordance to our ancient custom, that I should ask. “Ask, and ye shall receive; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.”

Q. How did you apply this to your then situation in Masonry?

A. I asked the recommendation of a friend to become a Mason; through his recommendation I sought admission; I knocked at the door of the Lodge and it was opened unto me.

Q. Why were you received on the point of a sharp instrument pressing your naked left breast?

A. As that was an instrument of torture to my flesh, so might the recollection of it be to my conscience, should I ever presume to reveal the secrets of Free-Masonry.

Q. Why were you caused to kneel and attend at prayer?

A. Because no man should ever enter upon a great and important undertaking without first imploring the blessings of Deity.

Q. Why were you asked in whom you put your trust?

A. Because, agreeably to our most ancient institution, no Atheist could be made a Mason; it was therefore necessary that I should put my trust in Deity, or no oath would have been considered binding among Masons.

Q. Why were you taken by the right hand, ordered to arise, follow your conductor, and fear no danger?

A. It was to assure me, as I could not foresee nor avoid danger, that I was in the hands of a true and trusty friend, in whose fidelity I might with safety confide.

Q. Why were you conducted once around the Lodge?

A. That the brethren might see that I was duly and truly prepared.

Q. Why were you caused to meet with the several obstructions on your passage?

A. Because there were guards placed at the south, west, and east gates of the courts of King Solomon’s Temple, to see that none passed or repassed but such as were duly and truly prepared and had permission; it was therefore necessary that I should meet with these several obstructions, that I might be duly examined before I could be made a Mason.

Q. Why were you caused to kneel on your naked left knee?

A. Because the left side is considered to be the weakest part


of man; it was therefore to show that it was the weaker part of Masonry I was then entering upon, being that of an Entered Apprentice.

Q. Why were you caused to rest your right hand on the Holy Bible, square, and compasses?

A. Because the right hand was supposed by our ancient brethren to be the seat of fidelity, and so they worshipped Deity under the name of Fides, which was supposed to be represented by the right hands joined, and by two human figures holding each other by the right hand; the right hand, therefore, we masonically use to signify in the strongest manner possible the sincerity of our intentions in the business in which we are engaged.

Q. Why were you presented with a lambskin or white linen apron, which is the badge of a Mason?

A. Because the lamb, in all ages, has been deemed an emblem of innocence; he, therefore, who wears the lambskin as a badge of a Mason is thereby continually reminded of that purity of life and conduct which is essentially necessary to his gaining admission into that celestial Lodge above, where the Supreme Architect of the universe presides.

Q. Why were you requested to deposit something of a metallic kind?

A. To remind me of my extremely poor and penniless state, and that, should I ever meet with a friend, more especially with a brother, in like destitute circumstances, I should contribute as liberally to his relief as his circumstances demanded, without any material injury to myself.

Q. Why were you conducted to the northeast corner of the Lodge, as the youngest Entered Apprentice, and there caused to stand upright like a man, your feet forming a square–receiving at the same time a solemn charge ever to walk and act uprightly before God and man? 1

A. Because the first stone of a building is usually laid in the northeast corner. I was therefore placed there to receive my first instructions where to build my future Masonic and moral edifice.


Q. What is a Lodge?

A. A certain number of Masons duly assembled, with the



[paragraph continues] Holy Bible, square, and compasses, and charter, or warrant empowering them to work.

Q. Where did our ancient brethren usually meet?

A. On a high hill or in a low valley.

Q. Why so?

A. The better to observe the approach of cowans, or eaves-droppers, ascending or descending.

Q. What is the form and covering of a Lodge?

A. An oblong square, extending from east to west, between the north and south, from the earth to the heavens, and from the surface to the centre.

Q. Why of such vast dimension?

A. To signify the universality of Masonry, and that a Mason’s charity should be equally extensive.

Q. What supports this vast fabric?

A. Three great pillars, constituting Wisdom, Strength, and Beauty.

Q. Why are they so called?

A. Because it is necessary there should be wisdom to contrive, strength to support, and beauty to adorn all great and important undertakings.

Q. By whom are they represented?

A. By the Worshipful Master, and the Senior and Junior Wardens.

Q. Why are they said to represent them?

A. The Worshipful Master represents the pillar of Wisdom, because he should have wisdom to open his Lodge, set the craft at work, and give them proper instructions. The Senior Warden represents the pillar of Strength, it being his duty to assist the Worshipful Master in opening and closing his Lodge, to pay the craft their wages, if any be due, and see that none go away dissatisfied, harmony being the strength of all institutions, more especially of ours. The Junior Warden represents the pillar of Beauty, it being his duty at all times to observe the sun at high meridian, which is the glory and beauty of the day.

Q. What covering has a Lodge?

A.. A clouded canopy, or starry-decked heavens, where all good Masons hope to arrive, &c., &c.

Q. What furniture has a Lodge?

A. The Holy Bible, square, and compasses.

Q. To whom are they dedicated?

A. The Bible is dedicated to God, the square to the Master, and the compasses to the craft.


Q. Why are they thus dedicated?

A. The Bible is dedicated to God, because it is the inestimable gift of God to man, &c., &c.

Q. What are the ornaments of a Lodge?

A. The mosaic pavement, the indented tessel, and the blazing star.

Q. What are they?

A. The mosaic pavement is a representation of the Ground Floor of King Solomon’s Temple, with a blazing star in the centre; the indented tessel, that beautiful tessellated border which surrounds it.

Q. Of what are they emblematical?

A. The mosaic pavement represents this world, which, though checkered over with good and evil, yet brethren may walk to-ether thereon, and not stumble. (See Monitor.)

Q. How many lights has a Lodge?

A. Three.

Q. How are they situated?

A. East, west, and south.

Q. None in the north?

A. No.

Q. Why none in the north?

A. Because this and every other Lodge is, or ought to be, a true representation of King Solomon’s Temple, which was situated north of the ecliptic; the sun and moon, therefore, darting their rays from the south, no light was to be expected from the north. We therefore, masonically, term the north a place of darkness.

Q. How many jewels has a Lodge?

A. Six: three movable, and three immovable. 1

Q. What are the movable jewels?

A. The rough ashler, the perfect ashler, and the trestle-board.

Q. What are they?

A. Rough ashler is a stone in its rough and natural state; the perfect ashler is also a stone, made ready by the working-tools of the fellow craft, to be adjusted in the building; and the trestle-board is for the master workman to draw his plans and designs upon.

Q. Of what do they remind us?



A. By the rough ashler we are reminded of our rude and imperfect state by nature; by the perfect ashler of that state of perfection at which we hope to arrive by a virtuous education, our own endeavors, and the blessing of God; and by the trestle-board we are also reminded that, as the operative workman erects his temporal building agreeably to the rules and designs laid down by the Master on his trestle-board, so should we, both operative and speculative, endeavor to erect our spiritual building agreeably to the rules and designs laid down by the Supreme Architect of the universe, in the great book of Revelation, which is our spiritual, moral, and Masonic trestle-board.

Q. What are the three immovable jewels?

A. The square, level, and plumb.

Q. What do they masonically teach us?

A. The square teaches morality; the level, equality: and the plumb teaches rectitude of life.

Q. How should a Lodge be situated?

A. Due east and west.

Q. Why so?

A. Because, after Moses had safely conducted the children of Israel through the Red Sea, by Divine command he erected a tabernacle to God, and placed it due east and west, which was to commemorate to the latest posterity that miraculous east wind that wrought their mighty deliverance–this was an exact model of Solomon’s Temple; since which time every well regulated and governed Lodge is, or ought to be, so situated.

Q. To whom were Lodges dedicated in ancient times?

A. To King Solomon.

Q. Why so?

A. Because it was said he was our most ancient Grand Master, or the founder of our present system.

Q. To whom in modern times?

A. To St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist, who were two eminent Christian patrons of Masonry; and since their time there is, or ought to be, represented in every

regular and well-governed Lodge a certain “point within a circle,” the point representing an individual brother, the circle the boundary-line of his conduct beyond which he is never to suffer his prejudices or passions to betray him. This circle is embodied by two perpendicular parallel lines, representing St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist; and upon the top rest the Holy Scriptures. In going round this circle, we necessarily touch upon these two lines, as well upon the Holy Scriptures, and while



a Mason keeps himself circumscribed within their precepts it is impossible that he should materially err.

This ends the lecture 1 on the Entered Apprentices’ Degree. But very few Masons are sufficiently posted in these lectures to answer every inquiry respecting then. Not one in a hundred ever gets them perfect, none but a few aspiring members seeking after office take the trouble to commit them to memory, and some of these do so very imperfectly. Most Masters, at the present day, qualify themselves for the office of Master by purchasing Richardson’s or Avery Allyn’s Masonic exposures. These works have, of course, to be amended. On perusing the present work the reader will be greatly surprised at the striking resemblance it bears to the works just mentioned, especially in the lectures; but let him mark the alterations, principally at the commencement of each lecture

In some Lodges the following lecture is used, especially in the Northwestern States:

Q. What are the points of your profession?

A. Brotherly love, relief, and truth.

Q. Why so?

Q. Brother. you informed me that I should know you by certain signs, and tokens, and words, and the points of your en-trance. You have already satisfied me as to the signs and words. I now require you to explain to me the points of your entrance: how many, and what are they?

A. They are four: the Guttural, the Pectoral, the Manual, and the Pedestal, which allude to the four cardinal virtues, viz.; Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence, and Justice.

Temperance is that due restraint upon our affections and passions which renders the body tame and governable and frees the mind from the allurements of vice. This virtue should be the constant practice of every Mason, as he is thereby taught to avoid excess, or contracting any licentious or vicious habit, the indulgence of which might lead him to disclose some of those valuable secrets which he has promised to conceal and never



reveal, and which would consequently subject him to the contempt and detestation of all good Masons. See “Guttural,”

This virtue alludes to the Mason’s obligation, which is the Guttural.

Fortitude is that noble and steady purpose of the mind, whereby we are enabled to undergo any pain, peril, or danger, when prudentially deemed expedient. This virtue is equally distant from rashness and cowardice; and, like the former, should he deeply impressed upon the mind of every Mason, as a safeguard or security against any illegal attack that may be made, by force or otherwise, to extort from him any of those secrets with which he has been so solemnly intrusted; and which virtue was emblematically represented upon his first admission into the Lodge, on the point of a sharp instrument pressing his naked left breast. This alludes to the Pectoral. 1

Prudence teaches us to regulate our lives and actions agreeably to the dictates of our reason, and is that habit by which we wisely judge, and prudentially determine, on all things relative to our present, as well as to our future happiness. This virtue should it be the invariable practice of every Mason never to for the government of his conduct while in the Lodge, but also when abroad in the world. It should be particularly attended to in all strange and mixed companies, never to let fall the least sign, token, or word, whereby the secrets of Masonry might be unlawfully obtained. Especially, brother in Masonry, you should always remember your oath as an Entered Apprentice, while kneeling at the altar, on your naked left knee, your left hand supporting the Holy Bible, square, and compasses, your right resting thereon, which alludes to the Manual.

Justice is that standard or boundary of right which enables us to render to every man without distinction his just due. This virtue is not only consistent with Divine and human laws, but is the very cement and support of civil society; and as Justice in. a great measure constitutes the real good man, so should it be the invariable practice of every Mason never to deviate from the minutest principles thereof.

The charge you received while standing in the northeast corner of the Lodge, your feet forming a right angle, was an allusion to the Pedestal.

Q. How did Entered Apprentices serve their Master in ancient times, and how should they in modern?

A. With freedom, fervency, and zeal.



Q How were they represented?

A. By Chalk, Charcoal, and Clay.

Q. Why were they said to represent them?

A. Because it was said there was nothing more free than chalk, which, under the slightest touch, leaves a trace behind; nothing more fervent than charcoal to melt–when well lit, the most obdurate metals will yield; nothing more zealous than clay, or our mother earth, to bring forth.


BROTHER: As you are now introduced into the first principles of Masonry, I congratulate you on being accepted into this ancient and honorable order; ancient, as having existed from time immemorial; and honorable, as tending in every particular so to render all men who will conform to its precepts. No human institution was ever raised on a better principle, or more solid foundation; nor were ever more excellent rules and useful maxims laid down than are inculcated in the several Masonic lectures The greatest and best of men in all ages have been encouragers and promoters of the art, and have never deemed it derogatory to their dignity to level themselves with the fraternity, extend their privileges, and patronize their assemblies.

There are three great duties, which, as a Mason, you are strictly to observe and inculcate–to God, your neighbor, and yourself. To God, in never mentioning His name but with that reverential awe which is due from a creature to his Creator; to implore His aid in all your laudable undertakings, and to esteem Him as your chief good. To your neighbor, in acting upon the square, and doing unto him as you would he should do unto you: and to yourself, in avoiding all irregularity and intemperance, which may impair your facilities or debase the dignity of your profession. A zealous attachment to these duties will insure public and private esteem.

In the State you are to be a quiet and peaceable citizen, true to your government, and just to your country; you are not to countenance disloyalty or rebellion, but patiently submit to legal authority, and conform with cheerfulness to the government of the country in which you live.

In your outward demeanor be particularly careful to avoid censure or reproach. Let not interest, favor, or prejudice bias your integrity, or influence you to be guilty of a dishonorable action. And although your frequent appearance at our regular meetings is earnestly solicited, yet it is not meant that Masonry should interfere with your necessary avocations, for these are on no account to be neglected; neither are you to suffer your zeal


for the institution to lead you into arguments with those who, through ignorance, may ridicule it. But, at your leisure hours, that you may improve in Masonic knowledge, you are to converse with well-informed brethren, who will be always as ready to give as you will be ready to receive instruction.

Finally, keep sacred and inviolable the mysteries of the Order, as these are to distinguish you from the rest of the community, and mark your consequence among Masons. If, in the circle of your acquaintance, you find a person desirous of being initiated into Masonry, be particularly careful not to recommend him, unless you are convinced he will conform to our rules; that the honor, glory, and reputation of the institution may be firmly established, and the world at large convinced of its good effects.

[If the candidate be a clergyman, add the following:]

You, brother, are a preacher of that religion, of which the distinguishing characteristics are universal benevolence and unbounded charity. You cannot, therefore, but be fond of the Order, and zealous for the interests of Freemasonry, which, in the strongest manner, inculcates the same charity and benevolence, and which, like that religion, encourages every moral and social virtue; which introduces peace and good-will among man. kind, and is the centre of union to those who otherwise might have remained at a perpetual distance. So that whoever is warmed with the spirit of Christianity, must esteem, must love Freemasonry. Such is the nature of our institution, that, in all our Lodges, union is cemented by sincere attachment, hypocrisy and deceit are unknown, and pleasure is reciprocally communicated by the cheerful observance of every obliging office. Virtue, the grand object in view, luminous as the meridian sun, shines refulgent on the mind, enlivens the heart, and converts cool approbation into warm sympathy and cordial affection.

Though every man, who carefully listens to the dictates of reason, may arrive at a clear persuasion of the beauty and necessity of virtue, both public and private. yet it is a full recommendation of a society to have these pursuits continually in view, as the sole objects of their association; and these are the laudable bonds which unite us in one indissoluble fraternity

The Kybalion

Posted: November 10, 2012 by phaedrap1 in Occult, Texts, videos

Freemasonry: an overview

Posted: November 5, 2012 by noxprognatus in Occult, Texts

Freemasonry is the generic name given to a variety of occult groups accredited to the secret fraternal order of Free and Accepted FreemasonsFreemasonry teaches that it evolved from the medieval guilds of stonemasons and cathedral builders, but continually hint at far older origins. The medieval guilds were fraternal societies of Gothic cathedral builders who were itinerant and moved freely about feudal Europe hawking their unique skills.

Gothic BuildersTo safeguard the singular knowledge of masonry, including its secret tradition originating in the ancient Near East, , medieval masons banded themselves together in Guilds. Members who were accepted into it learned the peculiar secret signs and passwords that made their status and station within the Guild known to others of their ilk. Each of the Guilds formed a Lodge with three levels of membership. The first, or lowest form of members, was the “apprentice” or “bearer of burdens.” The second form was “craftsman” or “fellow,” the skilled workman on the cathedrals. The third and highest form was the “master,” who was the overseer and superintendent of the building project. Before a man could pass from one degree to the next, a certain degree of proficiency was demanded. Furthermore, the Guilds all taught and required of their membership certain qualities of moral conduct. The spectacular cathedral building activity declined in the sixteenth century and with it a decline in the strength of the Guild Lodges. Consequently, some lodges of Operative Masons began to accept honorary members to bolster their declining membership. These non-working masons were referred to as “Accepted” Freemasons and later as “Speculative” Freemasons. Eventually the Guild Lodges came to be known as “Speculative Lodges.” Modern Symbolicor Speculative Freemasonry claims descent from a few of these diluted lodges.

As Gothic construction declined in the seventeenth century, the Masonic Guilds faced oblivion. To preserve themselves, four Lodges in London met together, in 1717, and decided to form a Grand Lodge. On June 24, 1717, three men met at the Goose and Gridiron Ale House and negotiated the unification of the four Lodges in London into aGrand Lodge, sometimes called the Grand Mother Lodge, which initiated the era of modern Freemasonry.

Grand  LodgeA certain Anthony Sayer, Gentleman, was the first Grand Master. Using Dr John Anderson’s Book of Constitutions, often regarded as the first Freemasonic text, the rituals and practices of Freemasonry were standardised in the newly instituted Grand Lodge. The Freemasonic tales of Hiram Abiff, King Solomon’s Master Builder, along with the pyramid hierarchic structure dates from, this reorganisation. Anderson’s book also maintained that members of any religion could become Freemasons, “leaving their particular opinions [about god] to themselves. The Grand Lodge had over 100 lodges in England and Wales under its control by 1730 and had begun to spread Freemasonry abroad, warranting lodges to meet in Europe, the West Indies, North America and India.

By 1723, they adopted a constitution to govern themselves and their success led to the establishment of other Grand Lodges in similar fashion. In 1725, some of the Lodges in Ireland formed a Grand Lodge for that island, and a similar body was instituted in Scotland in 1736. The original Grand Lodge of England was not without rivals in its own country, and at one time in the eighteenth century there existed in England three Grand Lodges in addition to the one organised in 1717. Two of these atrophied without influencing the history of Freemasonry, but the third played a major part in the dissemination of Freemasonry throughout the world. In the 1740s, Irishmen in London, many of whom had become Freemasons before leaving Ireland found it difficult to gain entrance into Lodges in London, so in 1751 a group of them formed a rival Grand Lodge. While it called itself the Antients Grand Lodge, the 1717 Lodge called itself the”Modern” Grand Lodge.

Although the two Grand Lodges were vigorous rivals, they sought to reconcile differences. The rival Grand Lodges appointed Commissioners in 1809 to negotiate unification, which finally occurred amidst great ceremony on 27 December 1813 at Freemasons’ Hall, London. The two combined to form the United Grand Lodge of England with HRH the Duke of Sussex (younger son of King George III) as Grand Master. Henceforth, the English stream of Freemasonry became pre-eminent in the British Isles and from it arose the largest secret society in the world, spread by the advance of the British Empire. This is sometimes called English Freemasonry or Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry in contrast to that variant arising in Europe called Continental Freemasonry.

By the 19th centuries Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry was operating in the Mid and Far East, Australasia, Africa and South America; that is, in most places that comprised the British Empire. many of the lodges formed independent local Grand Lodges when those areas eventually achieved nation status. However, at least 750 lodges overseas, principally in Commonwealth countries, have remained within the United Grand Lodge of England. Masonry also spread slowly throughout the world not under the sway of the British Crown: France (1718-25), Ireland (1725-26), Spain (1726-27), Holland (1731), Germany (1730-33), Africa (1735), Scotland (l736), Portugal (1736), Switzerland (1737), Italy (1733-37), Russia (1731-40), Canada (1745), Sweden (1735-48), Prussia (1738-40), Austria (l742), Poland (1784), and Mexico (1825).

Public interest in the nature, the ceremonies and intentions of Freemasonry developed considerably through the eighteenth century. So in addition did the number of aristocrats, landed gentry and professional men who began to seek admission into the Lodges. The first Royal Freemason to be “made” was Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, son of King George II in 1737. The tumultuous period during the French Revolution in which all governments in Europe shuddered, Freemasonry in Britain almost came to a halt. Acts of Parliament were passed in an attempt to curb trade unions, political clubs and other subversive organisations that threatened the social order. The Unlawful Societies Act of 1799 banned any meetings of groups, which required their members to take an oath or obligation. Organised Freemasonry acted swiftly to meliorate the effects of this rational and prudent act on its operations.pitT-younger

The Acting Grand Master of the premier Grand Lodge, Earl of Moira, and the Grand Master of the Antients Grand Lodge, the Duke of Atholl visited the Prime Minister, William Pitt (1759-1806), who was not a Freemason, to plead their case. They managed to perpetuate the fraud that Freemasonry was a supporter of the law and lawfully constituted authority and Christian to boot. Moreover, they told Premier Pitt that Freemasonry was much involved in charitable work. Consequently, Freemasonry was let off the hook and specifically exempted from the terms of the Act. However, each Lodge secretary was required to give an annual account to the local Clerk of the Peace of the members of his Lodge together with their ages, professions and addresses. A provision that was only rescinded by Parliament in 1967.

Most general accounts of Freemasonry cite the formation of the archetypal Grand Lodgein 1717 in London as the start of its inexorable rise to prominence. There is incredible speculation concerning the myths surrounding the origins of “the Craft,” however, there are four main traditions current in Freemasonry that purport to give a thorough account of its origins. The first claims that Freemasonry is the apotheosis of some simple Mystery within the old building Guilds. The second, that the terminology of architecture was used symbolically by occult philosophers and that the eighteenth century Craft Rituals were the epitome of this development. Thirdly, that the medieval Builders Guilds were heir to an ancient tradition that can be traced back to the architectural builders in antiquity who were initiates of the old Instituted Mysteries. Therefore, this account claims that there has always been a “speculative” component within Freemasonry. Masonic writers have sought to implicate Akhenaten, the Druids, the Culdees, pre-Christian Jewish monks, the Essenes, and the Rosicrucians in their genealogy. The fourth account asserts that the Knights Templars, heir to the esoteric traditions of the ancient Near East, created Speculative Freemasonry after their suppression.

Within the third tradition, the Freemasons have a custom that places their origins in a more remote distant era; in fact, they are quit ambitious in their claims to pedigree. Some elements within Freemasonry claim that its origins can be traced back to Adam, who not only was the First Man but also was the first Freemason. The infamous apron of Freemasonry is, they claim, merely symbolic of the fig leaves worn by Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.

UssherThis claim of great antiquity is reflected in the Freemasonic calendar which was founded on that dating of Creation made by James Ussher (1581-1656), Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of All Ireland, and Vice-Chancellor of Trinity College in Dublin.Ussher concluded after an exhaustive correlation of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean histories and Holy writ that the first day of Creation was Sunday 23 October 4004 BC. Moreover, the good Bishop calculated the dates of other biblical events. For example, he concluded that Adam and Eve were driven from Paradise on Monday 10 November 4004 BC, and that the Ark touched down on Mt Ararat on 5 May 1491 BC “on a Wednesday.”For apparent convenience, Freemasonry ignores the odd four years in the Ussher date of 4004 and Anno Lucis (in the Year of Light, when Freemasonry is deemed to have begun) is thus four thousand years ahead of Anno Domini. Therefore, Freemasonic dating is four millennia in advance of the Christian calendar inferring that Freemasonry arose with Adam. Thus, 2015 AD (Anno Domini) is in the Freemasonic calendar 6015 AL (Anno Lucis).

Noah had three sons, Ham, Shem, and Japheth. Ham had a son by the name of Cush, and Cush’s son was called Nimrod, and was known as the “mighty hunter.” Freemasonic myth declares that the gnosisreceived by Adam after eating from the forbidden Tree of Knowledge was transmitted to his son Seth. Nimrod, the eldest son of Cush and the great-grandson of Noah also received this wisdom. Nimrod (literally, in Hebrew, “Harad,” “we will rebel” or “let us rebel”) was the legendary biblical figure, described as “the first on earth to be a mighty man. He was a mighty hunter before the Lord”(Gen. 10:8–12). Genesis states that his kingdom was Babel, Erech, and Akkad in the land of Shinar, and that he built Nineveh, Calah (modern Nimrud), Rehoboth-Ir, and Resen. In Micah 5:5 the “land of Nimrod” is a synonym for Assyria. Nimrod and the Mesopotamian epic hero Gilgamesh have been identified as the same personality by some authors aware of the mytho-poetic nature of both. Others claim that Nimrod’s name is a distortion of Ninurta the Mesopotamian who was a great hunter and warrior, a culture hero who in some texts is called the ruler of the universe.

towerbabelIn Freemasonic myth, not only was Nimrod the founder of the Babylonian monarchy, he was also the Grand Master of all Freemasons and the builder of many wondrous cities in the land of Shinar. He was also the  genius behind the Tower of Babel, a tower that would reach to Heaven: which was the first co-ordinated assault on Heaven by the incipient five thousand year old Luciferian Conspiracy for World Government, according to conspiracy.  God confounded this attempt at World Empire by confusing the common language so people could not understand each other, causing the creation of different races and inter racial tensions and rivalries. The newly created races were eventually scattered over the face of the Earth. It is interesting to remember in ancient texts such as the story of Atrahasis, it is Enki who saves mankind.

Nimrod with the help of his mother, Semiramis and father, Cush, also established a religious system whereby the people, the masses, were controlled by political methods. The fundamental tenet of this organised religion was the worship of the god Baal, which included human sacrifice, especially infants. . Nimrod’s activities so enraged his great-uncle Shem that he killed the “great hunter” with the help of a group of Egyptians. Nimrod’s body was chopped up into little pieces, and parts sent to different cities as a warning to those who practised the occult.(we should not here Baal and Bel are synonymous, and in Assyrian text Bel is associated with Enlil…why would Nimrod bow to Enlil??as opposed to Enki?)

Semiramis, who was wife as well as mother to Nimrod, for, she had married her son, took command of the religion and proclaimed Nimrod a god. She collected all of Nimrod’s body parts except for his penis, which she could not find, and created the symbol of the obelisk and established phallus worship. This mother-wife also claimed that an evergreen tree sprang forth from a dead tree stump, which symbolised springing forth into new life of the dead Nimrod. Semiramis further claimed that every year on the anniversary of Nimrod’s birth, said to be on December 25th, he would visit the evergreen tree and leave gifts upon it. This tradition is the real origin of the Christmas tree. Semiramis was an adroit schemer who manoeuvred herself into prominence in the religion founded by Nimrod. Through her scheming she became the Babylonian “Queen of Heaven” whilst Nimrod, under various names, became the “divine son of heaven.” Nimrod was later refashioned as a messiah figure, son of Baal the Sun-god, thereby creating the archetypal motifs: the World Redeemer and the”Mother and Child.”

Isis Nursing HorusThus, Semiramis and Nimrod reborn became chief objects of worship within the cults of the ancient world. The worship of the “mother and child” spread throughout the ancient world appearing in different cultures in different names. In Egypt, the pair was called Isis and Horus,in Asia Minor, they were Cybele and Attis, in Rome, they were Fortuna and Jupiterpuer. The figure of Nimrod as the dying and resurrecting man-god is at the heart of the Ancient Mysteries but under different names. In Egypt, he was Osiris, in Greece Dionysus, in Asia Minor, Attis, in Syria, Adonis, in Persia, Mithras, in Rome, Bacchus. It is also the motif of theMessiah Tradition in Judaism and Christianity. Hence, throughout the ancient world the idea of the World Saviour, the incarnation of a god into the body of a man, was a perennial theme. The”mother and child” motif also appears in other religious systems throughout the world. In the seventeenth century, for instance, Jesuit missionaries to Tibet, China, and Japan were astonished to find the counterpart of Madonna and her Child was devoutly worshipped in the lands as in papal Rome itself.

A well known writer on Freemasonry, Albert Mackey (a 33° Mason and Secretary General of theSupreme Council of the thirty third degree Scottish Rite), alludes to two manuscripts, the “York manuscript, No. 1” and the “Cooke Manuscript” in justification of this ancient lineage. The first manuscript apparently contained information from a parchment that dated back to the year 1560 that identified Babylon as the originator of Freemasonry. Whilst the second relates a legend in which Nimrod taught the craft of Freemasonry to the workers at the Tower of Babel. These secrets were said to be lost when God broke up the ancient common language. Freemasonry was revived centuries later when King Solomon was building the Temple in Jerusalem. The “Masonic Lodges,” wrote Mackey,”were initially dedicated to King Solomon, because he was our first Most Excellent Grand Master.”

Two Hirams & King  SolomonA story central to the Freemasonic tradition concerns the two master temple builders,Hiram of Tyre and Hiram Abiff. These are the Old Testament personages that King Solomon commanded to build his temple:

“Send me now therefore a man cunning to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, and in iron, and in purple, and crimson, and blue, and that can skill to grave” (2 Chron. 2:7).

“And king Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre” (1 Kings 7:13).

Solomons TempleHiram of Tyre was of the tribe of Naphatali, a son of a man from Tyre and of a woman of the daughters of the tribe of Dan, and a worker in brass, filled with wisdom and understanding to the work of metal. This Hiram made the two pillars of brass known asJachin and Boaz.  The other temple builder, Hiram Abiff, is the “widow’s son” of Freemasonic myth. Tragedy stalked Hiram Abiff for he was murdered by three Fellow-Craftsmen when he would not reveal the secret Freemasonic word, the “Master’s Word,”which was engraved on a gold triangle he wore around his neck. Solomon found the triangle, and had it placed in a secret vault under the Temple. The retribution Solomon extracted from the fleeing murderers is the inspiration for the unholy blood oaths of entry into the first three degrees of Freemasonry.

In Freemasonic legend, the names of these murderers are Jubelo, Jubela and Jubelum, collectively described as the “Juwes.” The weapons used to murder Hiram Abiff, so legend relates, were a variety of temple-building tools, including a heavy maul. His body also went missing after the murder and the corpse of the Master Mason was sought by fifteen trusty Fellow Crafts. Forming themselves into three classes, or Fellow Craft Lodges, they departed the Temple and spent many fruitless days in their search for their beloved Master. Eventually, the second class uncovered the hastily made grave in which the body of Hiram was indecently interred. Solomon was told of the discovery and ordered the return of Hiram Abiff so that his body could be accorded proper respect due to one of his rank and exalted talents. According to Freemasonic lore, the three Juwes were hunted down and executed;

Hiram Abiff“… by the breast being torn open and the heart and vitals taken out and thrown over the left shoulder.”

Freemasonry exalts Abiff as a near Christ-like figure. Mackey wrote:

“Hiram represents a popular Syrian god against whom the champions of Jehovah [the Jews] strove ceaselessly.”

According to other Freemasonic writers, Abiff personifies all of the pagan sun gods of antiquity. The symbolism behind this statement is that the Freemasons believe that the sun god was the builder of the Temple. Therefore, the Temple in this context, is itself symbolic, and should not be confused with the physical Temple built by the Israelites in Jerusalem. Albert Pike (1809-91) wrote in Morals and Dogma, that the:

“Temple of Solomon presented a symbolic image of the Universe; and resembled, in its arrangements and furniture, all the temples of the ancient nations that practised the mysteries.”

The concept of the Lodge is derived from the Classical World in which the builders of the wonders of antiquity organised themselves into groups, or guilds of mutual self-interest. For instance, in ancient Greece, they were called the “Dionysiacs,” and in Rome, the “Collegium Muriorum,” In the medieval world, these artisans who constructed the immense Gothic cathedrals, castles, abbeys and churches were called “masons.” Because they lived or “lodged” together in a fraternal way during the construction process, the term “Masonic lodge” was used to denote a meeting place of kindred souls. Another tradition in Freemasonry, arising from Irish Freemasons living in London, informs us that theFirst Grand Lodge of England met at York in 926 and there developed the hand signs and passwords with which to identify themselves. In 1751, a group of Irish Freemasons formed a rival Grand Lodgedue to a difficulty gaining entrance into Lodges in London. They claimed to be working “according to the old institutions granted by Prince Edwin at York in AD 926” and thus became known as theAntients Grand Lodge whilst referring to their older rival, the Grand Lodge formed in 1717, as”Moderns.”

The Irish Freemasons also asserted that the concept of the Lodge, wherein the initiations, rites, rituals, and ceremonies took place, was also formulated at the York conference. In this account,  the occult group invested with “Institutions by Edwin at York” had, by the 13th century, grown to be an association that was centred at Cologne, with Lodges at Strasbourg, Vienna, and Zurich. Moreover, by this time, it had ceremonies for initiation and had started calling themselves Freemasons. By the seventeenth century, the non-workers called the “Accepted” Freemasons joined the artisans and soon outnumbered them in the Lodges. These “Accepted” Freemasons were usually distinguished members of the community, including the aristocrat, who joined for a variety of reasons, but the reinforcement of power and personal position within general society was the primary reason for most. The decline of Operative Masonry was reciprocated by the rise of the symbolic, Speculative element that caused most working masons and builders to leave. Soon even the well-healed Accepted Freemasons, these men of fashion, left the lodges set-up by the working men and formed their own gentlemen’s Lodges. This was the start of Freemasonry.

The Rosicrucian, Francis Bacon (1561-1626), was, in this account, recognised as the founder of Freemasonry bequeathing to it the secrets of the Rosicrucian Order of which he was the guiding light. These secrets were none other than the true universal knowledge, the Secret Doctrine of the Ages, which the Rosicrucians had safeguarded during the ravages of the Middle Ages and from the cruel eyes of the Roman Church. A secret society of intellectuals dedicated to civil and religious freedom had initiated Bacon who propagandised this agenda in several of his books. His book New Atlantis(1627) sets out the Ancient Agenda of the Secret Societies that had been working for thousands of years to achieve what it believed was the the ideal form of government for the nations of the world.

Lucifer atop of New World Order.

Francis Bacon was an initiate into the Ancient Mysteries and charged by his Secret Masters to prepare the way for those who followed. They commanded him to lay the philosophical groundwork for the reordering of society .. InInstauratio Magna, Bacon revealed the Humanist Agenda to reorganise the sciences into thoroughly materialistic disciplines that would subdue Nature and extract her secrets thereby restoring man to the mastery over Nature that he lost following the Fall of Adam. In the Freemasonic tradition, Bacon was said to have written an unpublished sequel to New Atlantis which included details and timetables of how this “Great Plan” was to be accomplished. This sensitive document was kept secret by those aware of its importance. However, in 1653, his descendant Nathaniel Bacon transported it across the Atlantic Ocean, to the “New Atlantis” in North America, to Jamestown, where it was buried in Williamsburg, Virginia. Its resting place is supposedly in a great vault beneath the tower centre of the first brick church in Bruton Parish, now known as the Bruton Vault. The last person to view the contents of this vault and the secret document within was, according to legend, Thomas Jefferson

Elias AshmoleBlue LodgeBy the time Inigo Jones (1573-1652) had reorganised the English Lodges according to the genius of the Enlightenment, by introducing Descartean rationalism, “the Craft” had become known as the Free and Accepted Freemasons. The first record of the”making” of a Freemason in England is the Rosicrucian and antiquarian Elias Ashmole(1617-92), founder of Oxford’s Ashmolean Museum. He recorded in his diary that a Lodge met at his father-in-law’s house in Warrington, Cheshire on 16 October 1646 to make him a Freemason. None of those involved was a stonemason, which is evidence that at this time Freemasonry was a separate organisation unrelated to groups controlling the stonemason’s craft. In other words, at this time, Freemasonry was not directly related or associated with the ancient Guild of Masons: i.eFreemasons are not or related to Craftmasons.

Ashmole established the three basic degrees of Freemasonry: the Entered Apprentice, the Fellow-Craft and the Master Mason. These entry grades were later called the Blue Lodge or Symbolic Lodge of Freemasonry. From here, this account of the origins of Freemason joins the three men at the Goose and Gridiron Ale House and thereby the orthodox version favoured by conservative gentlemen and publicists of the Lodge. Many myths swirl around the founding of Freemasonry some deliberately made opaque others distortions of the truth. We will now broach the Truth.

Freemasonry remains most popular in the British Isles, in other countries originally within the British Empire, and other nominally Protestant nations. Freemasonry’s avowed goals are to promote brotherhood amongst the diverse tribes of humankind. A laudable aim indeed, but it is not the only aim of Freemasonry. There is much hidden behind the aphorism beloved of Freemasons that their Craft is “a system of morality, veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols.” The quaint symbolism of Freemasonry and the fraternal posturing of Freemasons masque the Luciferian roots and Dark secrets of Freemasonry. The “Grand Lodge Era” of English Freemasonry or Anglo-Saxon Freemasonry was deistic and politically conservative and Protestant by inclination. Many Lodge members were Protestant clergy and the bulk of Freemasons were predisposed toward the Hanoverian dynasty, which ruled the country, and antagonistic towards Catholicism. Anderson had stipulated in his Constitution that:

“A Mason is obliged, by his tenure, to obey the Moral Law: and if he rightly understands the Art, he will never be a stupid Atheist nor an irreligious libertine ….”

Therefore, in early Freemasonry outright Atheism was ostensibly taboo. The streams of consciousness that were commingled into Freemasonry came from very different sources. The ancient gnosis concerning the celestial hierarchies, which had been nurtured in the Orient and transmitted into Europe during the ninth century, was subsumed into a dogma  that was eventually called Freemasonry. The demise of ancient Craftmasonry occurred in the beginning of the eighteenth century when their patrons among the aristocracy joined in the rituals in the lodges and underwent initiation themselves. Craftmasonry was a vehicle that carried ancient knowledge and the capacity for spiritual vision that the majority of humanity had lost. .

NIcholas 'the Great'The Roman Church had effectively ruled that man did not possess a spirit, but merely consisted of body and soul. This pronouncement eradicated the conception of the individual spirit from the entelechy of man and anticipated the contraction of human consciousness that confined waking men to the terrestrial world. That is, the ancient picture consciousness had atrophied and the rational part of the brain had subsumed all into itself thereby presenting an arid dry sterile picture of reality to the waking self. The rejection of the individual spirit and the immersion in gross materialism that followed had literally closed the gates to the spiritual world for the mass of humanity. Vestiges of the ancient ways were retained in some occult Orders but the group that brought the traditions of initiation into modern times was Craftmasonry. Especially the New Dispensation founded upon the sacrifice of Christ on the Cross at Cavalry.

The LodgeIn 1727, the aristocrats who had poured into the lodges changed the passwords and thereby excluded Operative Freemasons from their own lodges. This act of theft was the moment when Freemasonry was born. The Craftmasons who worked raw stone into sublime structures, who encoded the ancient knowledge of Creation into their designs, and who left to future generations the secrets of evolution in the cathedrals they had built, were ousted from the Lodge. The dilettante, the gentleman, the aristocrat, the parvenu, the thief, the murderer and the idler ejected them. By this grave act, an unbroken line stretching back to the building of the Temple of King Solomon in Jerusalem was broken. The pristine nature and purpose of the original Craft lodges had been perverted by the new regime that had taken control of the Order.

The new Freemasonry offered its aristocratic members means to obtain spiritual knowledge and spiritual faculties, which exposed them to the workings of earthly power structures. This privileged class of men had witnessed their temporal power and prestige wither in the modern world as thepetite bourgeoisie rose up to snatch political control away from them. Exiled from real power, the aristocrat idled as landowners and courtiers. However, these new spiritual insights into the workings of the physical and supersensible world opened latent possibilities of great opportunity for political manipulation and power.

Freemasonry_LodgeThe inevitable occurred and men who had access to power became corrupted by the very power they craved. The spiritual faculties that had been guarded by the initiates of Craftmasonry, which they preserved for moral reasons, and intended to benefit all humanity, became the preserve of a privileged group. This group jealously guarded this new knowledge, the source of their power, and ruthlessly pursued political power and commercial gain for themselves. The Craft of Masonry had existed since the building of Solomon’s Temple c.960 BC and an unbroken line of skilled adepts had guided and trained their novices through every degree in the path of perceptive knowledgeThis continuity was severed by the act of treachery by the first Freemasons who stole the rituals and observances from the Operative Freemasons, and excluded them from the Lodges. Ancient rituals that had served generations of initiates were refashioned and their true meaning and effects were lost. Sacred Rituals that were intended to guide the initiate into higher states of consciousness were devalued and abused by men who undertook them, knowing nothing of them and reciting them parrot-like, all for self-serving and selfish reasons.

The story continues….

Sumerian Language

Posted: October 31, 2012 by noxprognatus in Anunnaki, Texts


Sumerian was spoken in Sumer in southern Mesopotamia (part of modern Iraq) from perhaps the 4th millennium BC until about 2,000 BC, when it was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language, though continued to be used in writing for religious, artistic and scholarly purposes until about the 1st century AD. Sumerian is not related to any other known language so is classified as a language isolate.

Sumerian cuneiform
Sumerian cuneiform is the earliest known writing system. Its origins can be traced back to about 8,000 BC and it developed from the pictographs and other symbols used to represent trade goods and livestock on clay tablets. Originally the Sumerians made small tokens out of clay to represent the items. The tokens were kept together in sealed clay envelopes, and in order to show what was inside the envelopes, they press the tokens into the clay in the outside.

Examples of the clay tokens

Over time they realised that the tokens were not needed as they could make the symbols in the clay. They also developed a numeral system to represent mutiple instances of the same symbol rather than just inscribing them all. The symbols became stylised over time and eventually evolved into a complete writing system. The earliest texts come from the cities of Uruk and Jamdat Nasr and date back to 3,300BC.

The name ‘cuneiform’ means ‘wedge-shaped’ and comes from the Latin cuneus (wedge). It is based on the appearance of the strokes, which were made by pressing reed a stylus into clay. These type of symbol emerged in 3,000 BC.

By about 2,800 BC some of the Sumerian glyphs were being used to represent sounds using the rebus principle. For example, the symbol for arrow, pronounced ‘ti’, was used to represent the word for life (til). There were also many glyphs which were pronounced the same but represented different words. Later a system of determinatives, which gave you a hint at the category a word belonged to, and of phonetic components, which indiciated how to pronounce a word, developed, and helped disambiguate the meanings of glyphs.

Here are some examples of how glyphs changed over time:


Notable features
Type of writing system: semanto-phonetic – the symbols consist of phonograms, representing spoken syllables, determinatives, which indicate the category a word belonged to and logograms, which represent words.
Direction of writing: variable – early texts were written vertically from top to bottom, but by about 3,000 BC the direction had changed to left to right in horizontal rows. At the same time the signs were rotated 90° anticlockwise and started to be made up mainly of wedges.
Number of symbols: between about 1,000 in older texts to 400 in later texts.
Many of the symbols had multiple pronunciations.
Used to write: Sumerian
Sumerian syllabic glyphs